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108 Cards in this Set

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the physical process of breathing.
Pulmonary Ventilation
1. describes gas exchange between the lungs and the blood. This takes place in the lungs as the blood dumps CO2 off to the lungs and picks up O2.
Respiration takes place in two different locations.
1.External respiration
2. describes gas exchange between the blood and body tissues like muscle. This occurs anywhere in the body where blood is delivered and the blood dumps off the O2 and picks up any CO2 that the tissues are producing as a waste product.
Respiration takes place in two different locations.
2.Internal respiration
There is a small space between the wall of the chest cavity and the lungs themselves. This is called the____________ and it contains some lubricating fluid that keeps the membranes from sticking or rubbing together.
Pleural cavity
inside of the hollow chest
Thoracic cavity
Air first enters into the Nose or mouth and then passes on to the
Pharynx.
From the Pharynx air passes into the________or voicebox and then into the _________.
Larynx
Trachea
contains many hairs with act as a rough filter to screen out dust particles that may carry pathogens. Dust is also trapped by a layer of mucous produced by goblet cells. As air enters t is warmed and moisture is added to protect the lining of the passageways in the lungs. detects smell
nasal cavity
nasal septum divides it
1.back portion of the nasal cavity and serves a purely respiratory function.
2.back region of the throat that you can see if you look in the mirror. It serves both a respiratory and digestive role.
3.the deeper part of the throat which also serves a respiratory and digestive function.
The pharynx consists of 3 separate but connected parts.
1.Nasopharynx
2.Oropharynx
3.Laryngopharynx(join 1 and 2)
covers the larynx during swallowing so food or drink does not go down the wrong pipe. Anything other than air that gets into the upper part of the trachea initiates a strong coughing reflex to clear the material.
Epiglottis
c-shaped rings are located along the length of the trachea to physically hold it open. You can feel these rings if you feel your throat just above your breastbone and below the Adam's apple.
hyaline cartilage
wind pipe
voice box
trachea
larynx
Asthma attacks result when the smooth muscle spasms and contracts, effectively cutting off airflow in what
Bronchi
(bronchioconstrict or bronchiodilate to control airflow.)
It is here in these final sac-like structures that the passageways are thin enough to allow gasses to pass through them. This is the site of respiration.
Alvioli
This structure is only one cell thick so it's very thin and fragile. Some cells secrete _____________ fluid to keep things moist.
Alveolar Wall.
lowers the surface tension of water and prevents the alveoli from collapsing.
Surfactant
In the blood oxygen and CO2 are transported by __________ When oxygen is attached it is called _________ and when CO2 is attached it is called __________
hemoglobin.
Oxyhemoglobin
Carbaminohemoglobin
Some part of carbon dioxide is transported in the blood in the form of
Bicarbonate or HCO3.
takes CO2 and H2O and converts it to carbonic acid (H2CO3).
carbonic anhydrase
1.high Co2 levels leads to
2.low Co2 levels leads to
1.acidic blood
2.Basic blood
In the,_________ blood is trying to get oxygen, in the ___________ blood is trying to deliver oxygen.
pulmonary circulation
systemic circulation
Thus the blood vessels will____________ in high oxygen areas and actually___________ in areas of low oxygen concentration.
vasodilate
vasoconstrict
diaphram increases, and lowers pressure so the lungs increase to lower pressure, then b/c lower air pressure inside then outside air enters.... after diaphram returns... and increases pressure to lungs decrease to increase pressure as soon as that happens the higher pressure inside the lungs b/c of the air is decreased as that air leaves the lungs
ventilation
* These contractions lift the ribs up and out with a "bucket handle effect".
* These muscle contractions cause the thoracic cavity to expand and pleural pressure drops.
insperation
muscles in the ribs called the External intercostals contract.
* The muscles of inspiration relax causing the chest cavity to decrease in size.
* The elastic diaphragm returns to it's original position
* The elastic fibers pull the lungs back to their original shape.
experation
The amount of air moved into the lungs during a normal breath is called ____________
Tidal volume
_________is the amount of air moved when someone takes a very deep breath and then blows out as hard as they can. This is the most amount of air that a person can move in and out of the lungs. This would be lower for someone with a lung disease.
Vital capacity
it is impossible to empty the lung of all air. The amount of air that's left in the lungs at all time is called __________
Residual Volume.
Adding the amount of air measured for Vital Capacity with the amount of air left over, the Residual Volume gives the total amount of air that can fit into a person's lungs. This is called ___________
Total Lung Capacity.
1. narrow breathing passage from alergie
2.infection of bacteria,inlamed,increased goblet cell fluid production
3.sever #2 , strepacocus,alvioli fill with fluid
4.lung infection by myobacteria
5.alvioli disintagrate leaves holes
6.years of #5, cell agravation
7.genetic disease build up in lungs
8. binds to hemoglobin, reduces Oxygen carrying compacity leads to death if 2 much
9.can cause lung damage or pass out from lack of O2 can burn
1.Asthma
2.bronchitus
3.pneumonia
4.TB
5.Emphysema
6.lung cancer
7.cystic fibrosis
8.carbon monoxide poisoning
9.smoke inhilation
water gain 2 things
water lost 3 thinngs

solute gains 4 things
solute lost 3 things
*eating, metabolism gives H2O
*urin, resperation, sweat

*eating, cell sectretions, Metanolism,Humad air through lungs
*urin,sweating,minimal in resperation
1.________is an excess of which can lead to gout, a form of arthritis.
2. ________is produced as waste product of protein metabolism. It is toxic and requires removal.
3.________is a waste product of muscle metabolism.
wastes that need disposal
1. Uric acid
2. Ammonia
3. Creatinine
* Regulate blood volume by controlling water volume.
* Regulate blood composition by controlling solute and nutrient levels.
* Regulate blood pressure by controlling amounts of water and solutes in the blood.
* Regulates acid/base balance and blood pH by secreting acids.
* Help control the number of red blood cells by secreting the hormone Erythropoetin which stimulates RBC maturation.
* Produces urine, containing all unneeded materials, stores urine in bladder, gets released via ureter.
Functions of the Kidneys
Each Kidney is covered by a connective tissue layer called the ________. This not only protects the kidneys but also anchors them to the abdominal wall.
renal fascia
Urine flows out of the kidneys through the________ into the bladder

The__________ is a tube that takes the urine from the bladder to the outside of the body for disposal.
ureter

Urethra
1. The inside of the kidney is hollowed out to form a space called the ____________
2. The outermost region of the kidney is the________
3. the middle layer is called the __________.
1.renal sinus.
2.cortex
3.renal medulla
The __________ is the functional unit of the kidney. Each kidney has hundreds of these structures, each one responsible for filtering the blood and producing urine.
Nephron
1. They Filter the blood or actually the plasma part, into a tubule system.
2. They remove any useful material from the tubule system and return it to the bloodstream by a process called Reabsorption.
3. Lastly, the kidneys can actively secrete particular substances into the tubule system.
Roles of the Kidneys

The kidneys have 3 specific roles:
Anything that is either filtered or secreted into the tubule system ends up becoming part of the urine. In this way all unwanted items in the blood can be removed and only the useful things, like water, salts and nutrients are retained.
TUBULE SYSTEM

Formation of Urine
1. This is the functional unit of the kidney where Filtration, Secretion, and Reabsorption take place.
2.A nephron is made up of a filter called the ________ and a tubing system where the reabsorption and secretion take place.

3.There are two kinds of nephrons,_____________ and __________nephrons.


4.____________ have a deeper glomerulus and longer tubing system. The different kinds of nephrons allows for the production of a concentrated or dilute urine.
1.NEPHRON
2.Glomerulus
3.a. Cortical
b. Juxtamedullary
4.Juxtamedullary
1.The____________ controls blood flow into the capillaries of the Glomerulus.
2. The ___________ takes the blood as it leaves the capillaries.
1.Afferent arteriole
2.Efferent arteriole
Blood Flow in the Capillaries

The purpose here is not gas exchange. Actually the purpose for passing blood through the capillaries is to take advantage of a property of capillaries, namely that they leak.
plasma(protein-free ultrafiltrate=Only very small things like ions and nutrients and of course water get filtered)
changes blood pressure
vasodialation or vasoconstriction
REABSORPTION

1. The____________ begins by collecting the protein-free ultrafiltrate from the glomerular capsule into the beginning of a long tube.
2. The first part of this tube is the ,___________ and this connects to the ___________which forms a U-shaped structure.
3. Eventually the fluids pass into the __________and then into the renal pelvis.
4. At the renal pelvis, the__________ takes the now formed urine to the bladder for disposal.
1.Renal Tubule system
2.a.Proximal Convoluted tubule
b. Loop of Henle
3.distal convoluted tubule
4.Ureter
A hormone,is needed to allow the water to leave the far end of the tubule system.
Antidiuretic Hormone (or ADH)
ADH is released by the ___________when a part of the brain, the ____________, recognizes the body is dehydrated. It also stimulates a strong sense of thirst. ADH is released in response to high solute concentration in the blood or by dehydration.
1.Pituitary gland
2.Hypothalamus
Duiretics
alcohole
caffine
Aldosterone(a hormone
SECRETION

Some substances are actively removed from the bloodstream, for example, excess H+ and potassium.
_____________secrete H+ ions to regulate blood pH. Also secreted are some antibiotics and pesticides along with uric acid, ammonia and billirubin. All of these things are secreted into the urine by active transport.

Regulation of acid/base balance by the secretion of H+ is a slower process than what occurs in the lungs. However as the acids are secreted, the concentration of____________increases, thus restoring the buffer system in the blood.
Intercalated cells
bicarbonate
1.infected filter by streptocacus leads to proteina
2.to much calcium build up or uric acid crystals have to wait them out
3.stops functioning cant regulate blood cure is the dialysis machine.
1.Glomerulonephritis
2.kidney stones
3.acute renal failure
removes waste products through diffusion if patient has faulty kidneys

75% of the glomeruli can stop functioning before dialysis is needed

Anemia is a common side effect. Also, anticoagulents are needed to keep the blood from clotting.
Dialysis Machine
an inflammation of the renal pelvis inside the kidney. It's most often associated with urinary tract infections in females. The typical culprit is usually an E. coli infection.
Pyelitis
The Ureters drain the urine into the bladder which is just a smooth muscle bag used to store urine. Each ureter (one for each kidney) drains the urine from the kidney pelvis. A layer of smooth muscle moves the urine along via peristalsis and a layer of mucous protects the inner lining. The urine enters into the bladder through a pair of openings at the top. As the bladder fills the openings of each ureter get pinched shut to prevent urine backup into the kidneys.
URINE DISPOSAL
Micturition or urination is a contraction of the muscle of the bladder to force the fluid out. The tube leading out of the bladder is the Urethra. Two muscular sphincters guard the exit, the Internal and External urethral sphincters. During micturition the internal sphincter relaxes but the external sphincter is under voluntary control.
Urination
In order for the Nervous system to work, it need to do THREE things.
1. Gather information that comes from the senses.
2. Integrate that information and make decisions.
3. And lastly, it has to respond or take action to make corrections to the body system.
The Nervous System contains two main parts:

* ________ which includes the Brain and Spinal cord.
* the body has __________
*The Central nervous system (CNS)
*The Peripheral nervous system (PNS).
Divisions of PNS
The Peripheral nervous system (PNS) has two distinct functions and is broken into two divisions, the sensory division and motor division. Sensory neurons gather information and Motor neurons take action.
______________ of the PNS is itself separated into two units, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
The motor division
* _____________ system takes input, like vision or smell or pain signals from sensory neurons.

* _________ motor neurons control skeletal muscle. These motor neurons are always excitatory and cause skeletal muscle contraction.
Somatic Nervous System
___________sensory neurons gather data from internal organs, like CO2 sensors in the aorta, and then stimulate motor neurons that control cardiac and smooth muscle.

# _______________ system monitors internal homeostasis. Typically somatic neurons are under conscious control (except for reflexes) but autonomic actions take place without conscious thought.

#____________ system controls smooth muscle and cardiac muscle in two opposing ways. Specifically, the Sympathetic and the Parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system have effects that tend to act in opposition to each other.
The Autonomic nervous
1. ____________nerves regulate the body at rest and also general body maintenance like digestion.

2. The ___________ nerves respond to outside stimulation and result in a "fight or flight" response.
1.Parasympathetic
2.Sympathetic
the Autonomic Nervous System has 2 motor systems
1. Preganglionic neuron which has a myelinated axon.
2. Postganglionic neuron, lies outside of the brain or spinal cord and has an unmyelinated axon that ends at a visceral structure (internal organ)
like the smooth muscle of the bladder.

3.synapse. This is also called the ganglion. it connects to the second neuron at a junction
1. ___________ are stimulated to initiate nerve impulses which send signals to other cells and other parts of the nervous system. These electrical impulses can travel 280 MPH along the length of the neurons.

2. _________support, nourish and protect the neurons. One important function these cells perform is the construction of a myelin sheath on neurons.
1.Neurons
2.Neuroglial cells
Myelin
is an electrically insulating material that gets wrapped around the axon. This makes the nerve impulse travel faster along the axon.

* In the CNS _______is produced by Oligodendrocytes.
* In the PNS ____________ is produced by Schwann cells.
______________are nervous system macrophages and and their purpose is to regulate invaders in nerve tissue.
Microglia cells
Sensory neurons do what

*1. _______________skin sensors, body positions
2. _________- vision, hearing, balance
3. __________- organ distention (full bladder)
4.____________ - taste, smell
send signals to the brain and spinal cord.
Sensory categories include:

1.General somatic
2.Special somatic
3.General visceral
4.Special visceral
Motor neurons send ....

Motor neuron categories include:

1._______________- to skeletal muscle
2. ___________ - to smooth,cardiac muscle
3. ______________- to facial and speaking muscles
..signals from the brain and spinal cord to effector organs like muscle or glands.

1.General somatic
2.General visceral
3.Special visceral
Interneurons comprise of ...

Cranial and Spinal nerves can be categorized into ________ or________

1. _________deal with external sensory information
2. ____________ monitor and regulate the internal organs and environment.
3. A further "special" category refers to nerves that control the special senses like vision or speech.
..everything else that connects sensory neurons and motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord.

somatic or visceral neurons.

1. Somatic nerves
2. Visceral nerves
A_________is the connection between two neurons. Recall the__________ was the interface between a motor neuron and muscle fiber. A neuroglandular junction would be a similar interface where the neuron connects to a gland.
synapse
neuromuscular junction
The _________ contains the nucleus and most of the cytoplasm. Here is where the synthesis of proteins (neurotransmitters) occur.
Cell body
__________are a network of hairlike projections that serve as the input structure of the neuron. They form a highly branched tree structure and receive signals that stimulate or inhibit the neuron.
Dendrites
1. _________ have several dendrites extending from the cell body. These are found in the brain and spinal cord.
2. ________ have one dendrite and one axon on opposite sides of the cell body.
3. __________ have only one long process. The cell body is off to the side. These are typically sensory neurons.
1.Multipolar neurons
2.Bipolar neurons
3.Unipolar neurons
______ are long thin projections like a fat wire that stretches out from the cell body. There is little cytoplasm here and very little protein synthesis occurs. The axon is the long structure that carries the electrical signals over far distances to other neurons. it may be covered with a layer of myelin to speed up the action potential as it travels along the neuron membrane.
Axons
___________ is made when a cell wraps itself many times around the axon of a neuron. This "rolled cell" electrically insulates the axon in one area. When the action potential passes down the axon it jumps over the covered areas of the membrane and this increases the speed of the nerve impulse. The signal passes along the axon by leapfrogging from one open place on the membrane to another. The myelin is formed by Schwann cells in the PNS and oligodendrocytes form myelin in the CNS.
Myelin sheath
This impulse is started at a place on the axon called the Trigger zone. Once initiated the signal will travel the length of the axon without fail. This is called the __________________. Either there is sufficient stimulation to send a signal or there isn't.
All or Nothing Response
The flow of information in the nervous system is dictated by
__________________
Neuronal Circuits
______________are made up of a single presynaptic neuron that stimulates several postsynaptic neurons. An example would be a sensory signal that enters the brain and feeds off to various regions for interpretation and reaction.
Diverging Circuits
A ___________ has several presynaptic neurons that stimulate a single postsynaptic neuron. Here a motor neuron receives input from several brain regions to dictate a specific action.
Converging Circuit
____________________provide stimulation of one presynaptic neuron that results in several postsynaptic impulses. This allows extended coordinated muscle movements, like for example, breathing.
Oscillating Circuits
______________Circuits have one presynaptic neuron that stimulates a series of neurons, each ending on a common postsynaptic neuron. This allows for series of quick impulses to be sent at once.
Parallel After-Discharge
These variations allow a wide variety of control mechanisms. Circuits are partially stimulated and inhibited at the same time. However, stimulation must reach the threshold level to fire the neurons in a given circuit.
NEURONAL CIRCUITS
_______________is a condition where abnormal neuronal discharges in the brain result in uncontrolled muscle contractions or epileptic seizures. This is possibly due to abnormal reverberating circuits. There are many other causes of seizures including: infections, toxins, head injuries, metabolic problems, or birth defects.
Epilepsy
In the PNS there is some regenerative ability but it is an extremely slow process. This process only occurs if the damage is limited to the very long axon, and the cell body and Schwann cells are still intact.

1. Shortly after the axon damage, changes in the cell body cause it to swell.
2. Then the portion of the axon that's been cut off from the rest of the cell will degrade.
3. Finally, the end of the axon will form a structure called a regeneration tube which will allow the axon to start growing at a very slow rate.
Regeneration in the PNS
There are three membranes that surround the spinal cord and also extend up to protect the brain as well. These are called ________.

* The outermost layer is called the dura mater which is made of dense connective tissue.
* The next is called the arachnoid and is made up of elastic and collagen fibers.
* The last is the pia mater which is attached directly to the spinal cord or brain.
Meninges
the internal anatomy of the spinal cord contains two types of nerve tissue.

1.consists of myelinated axons that conduct signals to and from the brain.
2.This is made up of cell bodies, neuroglial, unmyelinated axons and dendrites of motor neurons. This is where the integration of information occurs.
1.white matter
2.Gray Matter
Certain kinds of strong stimulus can initiate a motor response without waiting for specific instructions from the brain. Given a strong pain stimulus, a sensory neuron would synapse directly onto motor neuron right in the spinal cord. This allows a fast reaction with a strong enough stimulation.
Reflex Arc
Reflexes require several components:

1. - any sensory receptor detecting heat, cold, pain ect.
2. that terminates in the gray matter of the spinal cord
3. in the spinal cord where there's a single synapse between the sensory and motor neurons
4. to carry signal to effector organ
5. is the muscle (including smooth or cardiac) or gland that responds
1.Receptor
2.Sensory Neuron
3.Integrating Center
4.Motor Neuron
5.Effector
paraplegia or a paralysis of both lower extremities. This can affect just the legs or if the damage is higher, the arms also.

Quadriplegia would be the loss of both arms and legs. Since the muscles would no longer be able to contract, denervation atrophy will result. The muscle tissue will degenerate over time.
Spinal Cord Injury
it shows the human body broken down into areas of innervation covered by one nerve segment. This is useful when diagnosing spinal cord problems
A dermatome map
__________ is an illness that follows years after chickenpox infections that usually happen when one is young. The chickenpox virus travels up the nerve tracts and lies dormant in the root ganglion near the spinal cord. Years later when someone is worn down or immunosuppressed the dormant virus can reemerge.
Shingles
________is a disease where the motor neurons become damaged. The poliovirus destroys the cell bodies of motor neurons thus destroying any ability to have muscle contraction.
Polio
___________ is also found between arachnoid and pia mater just like in the spinal cord. In the brain however there are several spaces what contain this fluid. There are 4 ventricles which are compartments in the brain filled with it.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
FUNCTIONS OF THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

1. ________________- CSF acts as a liquid shock absorber to reduce shock to the brain and spinal cord.
2._____________ CSF contains the precise ion components needed for neuronal signaling.
1. Mechanical protection
2. Chemical protection
Things that pass through easily include: glucose, O2, CO2, and lipid soluble compounds like alcohol, caffeine, nicotine, anesthetics. Urea and ions can pass through but slowly.

Things like proteins and antibiotics cannot pass through into the CSF.
The exchange of materials between the cerebrospinal fluid and the blood occurs by passing through the
______________.
Blood-Brain Barrier
____________is an infection that results in the inflammation of the meninges.
When the meninges are inflamed, bacteria or viruses can get through the blood-brain barrier and reach the brain cells.
Meningitis
1. ___________ connects the spinal cord to the pons. This structure controls automatic body functions like cardiovascular and respiratory functions. Any damage to this part of the brain is fatal.

2. ___________is the bridge between the medulla oblongata and other parts of the brain. It helps route information and also has a role in respiration.

3. The _________ controls movement of eyes, head & neck in response to vision and hearing inputs. It helps guide subconscious muscle movement.
1. Medulla oblongata
2. Pons
3. The Midbrain
This part of the brain helps the body conduct smooth motor activities and movements. These movements, like walking down stairs, drinking from a can or opening a door happen without much active thought. The cerebellum takes input from many sensors including sight, hearing and body position information to coordinate motor output. It also helps maintain equilibrium.
Cerebellum
The ____________is an oval structure that acts as a relay station to cerebral cortex. It's sort of a switchboard to parts of the brain that take care of more advanced decision making. It gathers different kinds of sensory information and sends it on to the parts of the brain responsible for interpreting the input. An example would be visual or auditory inputs getting sent to the visual or hearing interpretation regions of the br
thalamus
The___________ controls different aspects of body maintenance like deciding to stimulate feelings of thirst or hunger. It also helps maintain body temperature. Chemicals released during an infection can affect the hypothalamus and cause body temperature to increase. This part of the brain also controls the pituitary gland which secretes a variety of hormones that maintain homeostasis.
hypothalamus
The___________ is the most developed of all parts of the brain. This is where language, decision making, planning, and good old-fashioned thinking occur.

it is divided into the left and right hemispheres but they are connected by a structure called the _____________ The outermost layer of this structure is called the _____________ and is mostly gray matter.
Cerebrum
corpus callosum
cerebral cortex
1. interprets sensory data that enters the brain.
2.sends appropriate signals out to all the muscles based on sensory input.
1.primary somatosensory area
2.primary motor area
he cerebral cortex is divided into 4 main regions or lobes:

* 1. controls motor activity including speech and also conscious thought.
*2. receives and interprets sensory information.
* 3. receives auditory information and processes language and speech.
*4. receives and processes visual information.
1.Frontal lobe
2.Parietal lobe
3.Temporal lobe
4.Occipital lobe
______________is sometimes called the emotional brain. It's a collection of structures surrounding the brain stem that are connected to each other by myelinated axons. They help shape emotional behavior related to survival.
The limbic system
The formation of a subdural hematoma or blood leaking would start to fill up the brain cavity with blood. Since the blood has no place to go, it starts squeezing the brain tissue, thus compressing it. This will interrupt normal brain function and lead to death. It may be necessary to actually drill a hole in the skull to release the pressure.
contusion
The nervous system monitors the status of the external environment using _____________and also monitors the internal environment with _______________-.
Exteroreceptors
Visceroceptors
There are several types of nerve receptors to monitor various sensations.

*1. _________are found in muscles, joints, or the inner ear to gauge the position of body parts.

2.*__________ monitor things like mechanical pressure or stretching, touch, vibration, and hearing.

*3.___________ detect temperature changes.

* 4.________ detect pain from abrasions or chemical damage.

* 5.______________are found in the eye and are sensitive light.

*6._______________ are responsible for smell, taste, and internal regulation like CO2 or O2.
1.Proprioceptors
2. Mechanoreceptors
3.Thermoreceptors
4.Nociceptors
5.Photoreceptors
6.Chemoreceptors
1. sense of touch
2.Vibrations and deep pressure touch are detected by
1.mechanoreceptors
2.Pacinian corpuscle
_______________ is knowing the location and movement of body parts. It's what allows the brain to coordinate muscles needed to walk a straight line without wavering. Tremendous amounts of information are needed to simply maintain balance when walking down stairs yet we do it without thinking.
Proprioception
1.All of these help the brain figure out exactly where body parts are so it can then decide what to move to which position next
2. _________wrap around the junction of a muscle and it's tendon. These help prevent overstretching of the tendon to prevent tearing.

3. ___________ are associated with the synovial cavity of synovial joints and gives information about the position and even angle of a particular joint.

4.___________ are nerve ending embedded in muscle tissue that measure speed and duration of contraction.
1.Proprioceptors
2.Tendon organs
3.Joint Kinesthetic Receptors
4. Muscle spindles