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35 Cards in this Set

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how well your operationlization REPRESENTS the constructs
TRANSLATION VALIDITY
HOW well a meaure APPEARS to measure what you want
face validity
how well a emasure covers the material included in a construct and avois material not cinlude idn a construct
content validity
validity of a measure based on its relationship to another IV measure as PREDICTED BY YOUR THEORY how hwo emasure hsould behave
criterion-related validity
how wella emasure predicts what you'd expect it to predict
predictive validity
how wella measure can distingiosh b/w ggroups that it should theoritically be able to distinguish
concurrent validity

ex: measure of intelligence should predict GPA as well
how well a measure matches up with another measure of the same construct
convergent validity

ex: one measure of intelligevent should correlate highly with other accepted measures of intelligence
how DIFFERENT your measure is from other measures that it should theoricatlly be different from them
discriminate validity
when you use only ONE VERSIONS OF A TREATMENT or program in your study

ex: you say studying affects grades, but you only look at one type of studying
mono-operation bias
when you give some group a treatment, but they may also be gettingsome OTHER TREATMENTS THAT MAY AFFECT YOUR OUTCOME
interaction of different treatments
only ONE MEASURE fo a construct

ex: you're intersted in the effect of age on depression, but you only measure depression with one test
mono-method biasq
this is when testing or measuring makes peoplemore/less sensitive to your treatment
interaction of testing and treatment
treatment has unintended consequences
restricted generalizbility accros construct
when you only look at one level of your construct but label it as if it was for ALL LEVELS


ex: saying studying doesn't improve grades, but you only measured grade improvement after 20 sec. of studying
confounding constructs and levels of constructs
measurement error that is randomly distributed ACROSS measurements


- one way to reduce this is to use multiple ways of measurement
random error
error in measurement that occurs in the same direction in most cases

- one way to reduce this is by being careful in the design of your study
systematic error
what is the difference between an experiment and a quasi-experiment?
the participants are not randomly assigned to condition in a quasi-experiment
this type of varialbe averages out betwee/ groups with randoml selection.

ex: age, social status
extranous variable
it is a variable that does not avergae out and causes the results of the experiment to be questionable
confounding variable
the double blind procedure is used to control _____________ bias
experimental
an experimental design where the sample is grouped into relatively homogenous subgroups and then members of each subgroup are randomly assigned to conditions.
randomized block design
t or f: the randomlized block design helps there be no other plausable altnernative explanation
TRUE
is a statistical method for reducing variance caused by extraneous variables, by factoring out pre-test measurements of the extraneous variable.
COVARIANCE DESIGN
Analysis of covariance is...
ANCOVA
A t-test has one IV with how many levels?
only 2
a single factor anova has one IV with how many levels?
only 3+
T OR F: you use an ANCOVA when you have pre-experimental data you want to account for as well
TRUE
________ Validity- the degree to which conclusions you reach about relationships in data are reasonable.
conclusion
what is a type I error?


-possibility of a this increases as your alpha level increases
-instead bring the rejection region closer to the mean
where you think there is a relationship, when it actually DOES NOT EXISTS
What is a type II error?
when you conlude there is no relationship, but it actualy
EXISTS
t/f: -generally .80 or higher is acceptable power level for a study
true
t/f: -low power makes us conclude that no relationship exists, when it really does (Type II Error)
true
t/f: a correlation coefficient is a numerical index of the degree of relationship b/w 2 variable
true
________ reasoning: uses specific observsations to inder wider, more geneliable theories or conecept

bottom- up appraoch
inductive
________reasoning: uses a broad theory to predict specific occurences
deductive