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67 Cards in this Set

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which of the following approaches is use dhwne you conduct research, then guage your cinfidence in the generalization to your population based on how alike your poopulation and participants are?
proximal similary model
_______ similarity model
the degree to which conclusions in your study would hold for other persons in other places and at other times?
external validity
______ validity
what is NOT a type of purposive sampling?
a. quota sampling
b. heterogeneity sampling
c. stratified random sampling
d. all of the above
stratified random sampling
if you had 100,000 tshirts randomly ordred neatly on racks ina store and you wanted to findt he average price of tshirts in that would use...

a. simple random sampling
b. systematic random sampling
c. tratified random sampling
d. quota sampling
systematic random sampling
which is not a a type of translation validity?

a. external validity
b. content validity
c. face validity
d. all of the above are
external validity
which type of validity would be demonstrated if your 5 item measure of depression correlated highly with someone else's 20 item measure of depression

a. convergent validity
b. concurrent validity
c. predictive validity
convergent validity
which validity would be demosntrated if enlighs teachers performed bettern than scienc teachers on your measure of grammaitical ability?

a. predictive
b. discriminate
c. convergant
d. concurrent
which of the following threats to construct validity is being demosntrated when i'm measuring the effect of a drug on depression, but i only give participants 5mg of the drug

a. mono-operation
b. mono-method
c. mono-explication
d. none of the above
which is NOT a social threat to construct validity
a. evaluation apprehension
b. hypothesis guessing
c. experimenter expectancies
d. inadequate properational explication of construct
e. all of the above are social threats
inadequate peropreational explication of constructs
which is made of an observed score witha true score and error?

a. true score theory
b. observed score theory
c. random error theory
d. systematic error theory
true score theory
which of the following terms refers to the act of translating a construct into its manifestation

b. explication
c. operationlizaion
d. systematization
what type of reliability is being estimated when i give 2 forms (a and b) of exam #1 and find there is a .99 correlationbetween the 2 forms?

-inter-rater reliability
- parallel forms
-test- re-test
- internal consistenxy
- reliabity
parralel forms
which of the type of reliability is being estimated when i find the correlation b/w different items on an exam

-test- re-test
- parallel forms
- internal consistency
internal consistency
what is an index
quantitive score that MEASURES the cosntruct of itnerest by applying a formula or SET OF RULES that combine relevant data
when you conceptualize the index, what are you doing?
figure out the ocmponents of the index
when you operationalize and measure the components, what are you doing?
you are finding out how you are going to measure each of the components
what is scaling
involved construction of an isntrument that ssociates qualitative constructs with quantitative metric
puts numbers to subjective/qualitative ideas
what are some uses of QUALITATIVE research?
1. new theories
2. deeper understanding
3. detailed stories
4. mixed methods research
qualitative traditions: studying a phenomenon within context of culture and become active participant
qualitative tradition: emphasizes studying how the phenomenon is EXPERIENCED BY THE PARTICPANTS. focuses of people's subjective experiences
qualitative traditions: researcher goes into the field to observe phenomenon in NATURAL STATE
field research
qualitative traditions: used specificially to DEVELOP A THEORY about a phenomenon of interest
ground theory
ever-evolving research.
research forms tentative hypothesis
they change their appraoc
can qualitative data be coded for quantitatively?
is quantative data based o a qualitative judgement of some sort?
questioner and interviewer interact
in-depth interview
when an observer doesn't activelly question the participants
ex: field resaerch, photos, videos
direct observation
includes analysis of newspaer, books, websites, and letters, etc
content analysis
the researcher becomes a participant in the culture of context being studied. needs to be accepted
participant observation
it is not ethnography
direction itneraction b/w researcher and the respondent. the interviewer may lead the discussion in any irection desired
unstructed interview
this involves making sure that the participants find the results believable
the degree to which the results of wualitative research can be GENERALIZED TO OTHER CONTEXTS AND SETTINGS
similar to reliability in quantative research, but the researcher must account for changes in context that occur between measurements
the degree tow hcih others can confirm or corroborate the results
the question has the answer
what is an unobtrusive measure?
measures that allow the researcher to gather data without becoming invovled int he responden'ts itneraction with the measure used.
the approx. truth of inferences regarding cause-effect relationships
internal validity
the "cause" ahs to come before the effect
tempral precedence
the cause and effect must be related, there must be a correlationship b/w the 2
covariation of "cause" and "effect"
no other plausable exlpanations can be found for the observed relationship b/w your variables
no plausable alternative explanations
the question has the answer
treats that occur when only 2 treatment group is used without a control group
single group threat
only one group
something happens ruing the course of your study that affects the outcome
history threat
a threat that occurs due to natural maturation that happens between pre=test and post-test
maturation threat
question has answer
treating threat
when the pre-test affects your psot-test
instrumenation threat-
when the measure technique is not exactly the same on the pre-test and the post-test
caused by people dropping our of the study
mortality threat
how do you deal with single group threats?
control group
what is the best way to avoid selection problems in multiple group threats ?
randomly assign people to groups
social pressure in the research content that can lead to psot-test differences not caused by the treatment
social itneractions threat to internal validitty
it's a long answer
when a comparison group learns about the treatment either directly or indirectly from the treatment grop participants
diffusion or imitation of treatment
______ or ________ of treatment
when one group knows the treatment that the other one is getting and because of that, develops a competitive attitude towards theo ther group
compensatory rivarly
_ rivarly
occurs when the comparisong roup knows what the treatment group is getting andbecomes discourages, angry, or gives up
resentful demoralization
______ demoralization
occurs whent he control group is given a program or treatment designed to compnsate for the treatment the program group gets
compensatory equalization of treatment
___________ equalizations of treatments
_____________ subject studies- the particpants are the same in all conditions
within or between
_______________ subject studies: different particpants in each group
within or between
_____ effects: effects of treatments that last through subsequent treatments and measurements
carryover effects
reliability: is the correlation between measurements done by DIFFERENT RATERS
reliability: is the correlation b/w measurements obtained at different times. the amoutn oft ime b/w adminsitrations can affect reliability, alsot hings that happenb /w the administration can affect the reliability
test re-test reliability
reliaiblity: is where you findt he correlation b/w grades and alternative versions of the measures
paralle forms.
ex: give forms a and b of a test to people and compute the correlation
reliability: when you measure the corelation b/w items, total score, or groups of stems writing 1 measure. only valid whena ll items are measuring the SAME construct
internal consistency reliability
internal cons: the avergae corelation b/w all the items in a measure
average inter-item correlation
int cont: find the correlation b/w each item in a total score then compute the average
average item-total correlation
int const: wen you divide the item in 2 groups and find the correlation between them
split half reliability
int const: the AVERAGE of all split-half reliabilities estimates
crombach's alpha
what are filter/contingency questiosn?
designed to see if a person is qualified to answer other questions
moving up a step; requirement
drawing a sample so that eveyr possible member has an equal change og veing selected
simple random sampling

ex: names in a hat
what kind of random sampling?
dvide population into homogenous subgroups and then randomly sample some from each group
stratified random sampling
a step above simple random sampling
involves dividing population into clusters (based on geography) and randomly selecting clusters to study and measuring each individual within the cluster
cluster random sampling
the question has the answer
what is modal instance sampling
when you choose the most frequent case, or the typical case to be participants in your study