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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What sections are in a Research paper?
1) Abstract
2) Introduction
3) Method
4) Results
5) Discussion
What is in the Abstract?
- Reader's Digest
- Condensed format
- Order of the paper
- Single paragraph
- 120 words
What is in the Introduction?
- Justify your study
- Introduce the research question
- Summarize the research done, lit. review
- State your hypthesis
What is in the Discussion?
- Interpert your results
- Possible explanations for your results
- Limitations
- Generalize your results
What are the two domains of ethical responsibility?

-Humane treatment of participants
What is a confound?
1) varies systematically w/ the IV
2) influences the DV in a way similar to the way the IV is expected to
What are the 3 types of confounds?
1) Operational
2) Person
3) Procedural
What is Operational Confounds?
When a manipulation designed to manipulate one construct manipulates another one as well.
EX: Giving positive feedbacke increases self-esteem along with happiness.
Threatens construct validity
What is Person Confounds?
When individual differences co-vary with the IV and are related to the DV.
Threatens internal validity
What is Procedural Confounds?
An unitentional manipuations of 2 or more things at once.
EX: Crowded, Uncrowded; This room, other room.
Threatens internal validity
What is the Implcit Association Test?
Designed to tap automatic assiociations btwn concepts and attributes(e.g., male:science, female:liberal arts)
What is included in a true experiment?
-Eliminate confounds
-Allow observation of the invisible
-Provide information about interactions
-Minimize noise
What is interaction information?
The effect of one variable depends on teh level of the other variable
EX: State depentent learning
What is noise and what is its advantages and disadvantages?
Noise is random variation that exists in all conditions of an experiment
Dis- Harder to find differences among conditions of an experiment
Ad- experiment is more lifelike, i.e. less artificial
What is a "Pseudo" experiment?
It is missing the control group
One-group pretest-posttest design
Subject-->Pretest DV-->IV--> Posttest DV
What is another term for Independent groups design?
Between Subjects Design
What is a Between Subjects Design?
Each group is only tested on one treatment
Initial sample-->Random assignment-->Group 1 IV--> measured on dependent variable
-->Group 2 IV--> measured on dependent variable
What is a posttest-only design?
Subjects--> Ex, IV--> DV
--> Con, IV--> DV
What is a Pretest- Posttest design?
Subjects--> Pretest--> EX, IV--> Posttest
Subjects--> Pretest--> Con, IV--> Posttest
What is matched pairs random assignment?
Matched variable is related to dependent variable.
EX: All males pair up, then numbered 1,2,1,2,1,2
What is another term for Repeated Meaures design?
Within Subjects Design
What is a Within Subjects Design?
All participants are exposed to all conditions.
Initial Sample--> Level II IV--> DV--> Level I IV--> DV
Initial Sample--> Level I IV --> DV--> Level II IV--> DV
What are the Advantages of Within Subjects Design?
Fewer participants needed
Very sensitive to group difference. ( Participants in the groups are matched on every characteristic except the IV
What are the Disadvatages of thw Within Subjects Design?
Order effects
Fatigue effects- literally gets tired after going through a repeated amount of trails
Practice effects- exposed to a task and after repeated trials they learn the task
Contrast effect- Participant compares/contrasts with previous varibles
What is counterbalancing?
Presenting conditions if different orders to different participants, where factorals come into play 4 groups is 4! or 4x3x2x1
What is a mixed-model design?
Combines between and within subjects designs.
No Lesion-->con->DV->EX->DV
What is a one-way complex design?
Two groups designs, the simplest one-way is one IV with 2 levels
More than 2 levels is better
What is a Factorial Design?
More than one IV and each IV has more than one level
What is an interaction in a factorial design?
The effect of one IV depends on the level of the other
EX: The effect of the type of argument is different depending on whether the person is nodding or shaking their head
What is are the two types of interactions?
Ordinal-IV 1 has an effect under on condition of IV 2 but less of an effect under the other condition of IV 2
Disordinal (crossover)- There are no main effects of either IV, the effects of each IV are opposite at different levles of the other IV