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36 Cards in this Set

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BRONCHI AND BRONCHIAL TREE...
1. TRACHEA DIVIDES INTO RIGHT BRONCHUS AND LEFT BRONCHUS (R & L BRONCHI)
2. THESE EACH BRANCH AS THEY ENTER THE UPPER LOBES OF THE LUNGS AND CONTINUE TO BRANCH SMALLER AND SMALLER TO THE SMALLEST BRANCHES CALLED BRONCHIOLES
.
FUNCTION OF THE BRONCHI AND BRONCHIAL TREE

PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR

CARTILAGE IN THE WALLS ALL THE WAY DOWN TO THE BRONCHIOLES WHICH DO NOT HAVE CARTILAGE. THEY HAVE SMOOTH MUSCLE. WHICH CONTRACT (CONSTRICT) AND RELAX (DILATE)
.
AT THE END OF THE BRONCHIOLES ARE MILLIONS OF AIR SACS CALLED

ALVEOLI
.
ALVEOLI..(AIR SACS)

1. WALLS ARE ONE CELL LAYER THICK, SIMPLE SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM
2. SURROUNDED BY A NETWORK OF PULMONARY CAPILLARIES
3. GAS EXCHANGE OCCURS HERE
4. SURFACTANT IS A SUBSTANCE SECRETED BY THE ALVEOLAR CELLS THAT REDUCES SURFACE TENSION AND KEEP ALVEOLI INFLATED (PREVENTS COLLAPSE OF ALVEOLI)
.
LUNGS
1. BRONCHIAL TREE AND ALVEOLI (STRUCTURES OF THE LUNG

LOCATED IN THE THORACIC CAVITY

PROTECTED BY RIB CAGE
.
LUNGS....
1. RIGHT LUNG HAS 3 LOBES
2. LEFT LUNG HAS 2 LOBES
3. BASE-BROAD LOWER PORTION THAT REST NEAR DIAAPHRAM
4. APEX--NARROW UPPER PORTION UNDER CLAVICLE
5. MEDIASTINUM--AREA BETWEEN THE LUNGS
.
LUNGS...
1. PLEURA--SEROUS MEMBRANE OF THORACIC CAVITY
2. PARIETAL PLUERA LINES THE THORACIC CAVITY
3. VISCERAL PLEURA COVERS SURFACE OF THE LUNGS
4. PLEURA SPACE OR PLEURA CAVITY--AREA BETWEEN PLEURA THAT CONTAINS A SMALL AMOUNT OF SEROUS FLUID TO REDUCE FRICTION AS LUNGS MOVE
.
PLEURO--PLEURA
THORACO--THORACIC
LAYRNGO--LARYNX
NASO-, RHINO--NOSE
PULMONO--LUNGS
PYO--PUS
.
ATELO--INCOMPLETE?
TRACHEO--TRACHEA
-PNEA--BREATHING
-OSTOMY--CUTTING, SURGICAL INCISION
PNEUMO-, PNEUMONO---LUNG, AIR
-CENTESIS--SURGICAL PUNCTURE TO REMOVE FLUID
.
PHARYNGO--PHARYNX
OXO-, OXI-, OXY---OXYGEN
SPIRO--BREATH, BREATHING
-ECTASIS---STRETCHING,DILATION,ENLARGE
ORTHO--STRAIGHT, NORMAL, BREATHING
BRONCHI--BRONCHIAL TUBE, WINDPIPE
-CAPNIA--SMOKE, CARBON DIOXIDE
.
FUNCTION OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM?

SUPPLY THE BODY WITH OXYGEN AND RID OF THE WASTE PRODUCTS..CARBON DIOXIDE
PLUS...
SPEECH, SMELL, WATERBALANCE, ACIDBASE BALANCE
.
BASIC STRUCTURE OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM?
1. NASAL CAVITIES
2. PHARYNX
3. LARYNX
4. TRACHEA
5. BRONCHI
6. LUNGS (BRONCHIAL TREE & ALVEOLI)
.
2ND DIVISION OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT

2. LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT

TRACHEA, BRONCHI, LUNGS
.
NASAL CAVITY (NOSE)
1. NOSE MADE OF BONE & CARTILAGE COVERED WITH SKIN
2. NASAL CAVITIES DIVIDED BY NASAL SEPTUM
3. OPENINGS ARE CALLED NOSTRILL OR "NARES"
4. NASAL HAIR / NARE HAIR FILTERS THE AIR
.
NASAL CAVITY (NOSE) CONTINUED
5. VASCULAR (BLOOD VESSELS) WARMS AIR
6. CONCHAE OR TURBINATIS-SHELF-LIKE BONES ON THE LATERAL WALL OF THE NASAL CAVITIES THAT INCREASE THE SURFACE
7. OLFACTORY RECEPTOR IN THE MUCUS MEMBRANE, SENSITIVE TO SMELLS.
8. IMPULSES SENT TO BRAIN BY OLFACTORY NERVES
.
FUNCTION OF THE NOSE...

1. SMELL
2. A PASSAGE WAY FOR AIR
3. WARMS, MOISTENS AND FILTERS AIR
.
** PARANASAL SINUSES (SINUSES ARE HOLLOWED AREAS OF THE BONE)

1. FRONTAL, MAXILLARY, ETHMOID, SPHENOID
2. MUCOUS MEMBRANE LINING THAT IS CONTINOUS W/NASAL CAVITIES

FUNCTIONS:: LIGHTEN SKULL AND GIVE RESONANCE TO YOUR VOICE.
.
SINUSES ARE ACTUALLY PART OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM...
.
PHARYNX
3 PARTS...
1. NASOPHARYNX-AIR
2. OROPHARYNX-FOOD
3. LARYNGOPHARYNX-FOOD

FUNCTION: PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR & FOOD
.
LIVULA...(CONE SHAPED STRUCTURE) DIRECTS FOOD AND FLUID INTO OROPHARYNX

HANGING THING IN BACK OF THROAT...
.
EUSTACHIAN TUBE: CONNECTS MIDDLE EAR TO NASOPHARYNX

PHARENGEAL TONSILS...IN NASOPHARYNX

PALENTINE TONSILS...OROPHARYNX
.
LARYNX (VOICE BOX)

FUNCTION: PRODUCE SOUND / SPEECH / PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
.
LARYNX (VOICE BOX)

MADE OF CARTILAGE PCS.
LINED W/MUCOUS MEMBRANE THAT FOLDS THAT VIBRATE AS AIR FLOWS PAST THEM (CALLED VOCAL CORDS)
.
EPIGLOTTIS..PCS OF CARTILAGE THAT CLOSES OVER THE TOP PART OF THE LARYNX WHEN WE SHALLOW TO PREVENT ENTRY OF FOOD OR FLUIDS INTO THE LARYNX

STRONG REFLEX FOR COUGH IN LARYNX
.
TRACHEA..(WINDPIPE)..
1. ABOUT 4.5 INCHES LONG (15-20 PCS OF CARTILAGE)
2. MADE OF 15-20 "C" SHAPED CARTILAGES, ONE ABOVE THE OTHER W/OPENING OF THE "C" POSTERIOR TO ALLOW THE ESOPHAGUS TO BULGE WHEN SWALLOWING FOOD
3. LINED W/CILIATED EPITHELIUM THAT PRODUCES MUCUS
4. PASSAGEWAY FOR AIR
,
DIVISIONS-----

1. UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT

NASAL CAVITY, PHARYNX, LARYNX
(nose,mouth,pharynx, epiglottis,larynx
.
SINUSES PRODUCE MUCUS--
1. LINED W/MUCOUS MEMBRANE CALLED RESPIRATORY MUCOSA
2. A LAYER OF MUCUS PURIFIES THE INHALED AIR BY BEING STICKY
3. PRODUCE ABOUT 125CC OF MUCOUS PER DAY
4. CILIA IN TRACHEA AND BRONCHIAL TREE SWEEP MUCUS TOWARD THE LARYNX & PHARYNX
.
THE REGION BETWEEN THE LUNGS IS CALLED THE MEDIASTINUM

IT CONTAINS THE

HEART, AORTA, ESOPHAGUS, TRACHEA, BRONCHIAL TUBES AND THYMUS
.
PARANASAL SINUSES:
MAXILLARY SINUSES--LOCATED IN THE MAXILLARY BONES, ARE THE LARGEST OF THE PARANASAL SINUSES
.
PARANASAL SINUSES;
ETHNOID SINUSES, LOCATED IN THE ETHMOID BONES, ARE IRREGULARLY SHAPED AIR CELLS, SEPARATED FROM THE ORBITAL (EYE)CAVITY ONLY BY A THIN LAYER OF BONE
.
PARANASAL SINUSES;
FRONTAL SINUSES; LOCATED IN THE FRONTAL BONE JUST ABOVE THE EYES
,
PARANASAL SINUSES;
SPHENOID SINUSES; LOCATED IN THE SPHENOID BONE, ARE CLOSE TO THE OPTIC NERVES. AN INFECTION HERE CAN DAMAGE VISION.
.
CARBON DIOXIDE LEVEL OF BLOOD

IS MORE POWERFUL

THAN OUR CONSCIOUS!
.
CEREBRAL CORTEX

ALLOWS US TO VOLUNTARY CONTROL

OUR RESPIRATIONS
(SPEED, SLOW, HOLD BREATH)
,
PONS

HELP KEEP

BREATHING RHYMTHIC
.
THE CAROTID AND AORTIC BODIES ARE SENSITIVE TO INCREASED CARBON DIOXIDE AND DECREASED PH
.