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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Menstrual cycle is divided into 2 cycles- what are they?
ovarian cycle and the endomerial(uterine)cycle
Ovarian cycle
Is divided into follicular phase, the ovulatory phase and the luteal phase
Follicular phase
estrogen dominate when the follicle matures
ovulatory phase
follicle ruptures from the ovary on approximately the 14th day before onset of the next cycle
lutreal phase
progesterone is dominant as theuterus prepares for implantation
Endometrial cycle
Divided into the proliferative, secretory and ischemic phases
proliferation of endometrium dominant
progesterone dominant pahse cause endometrial glands to continue to grow and become dense preparatory to implantation
occurs only if fertilization does not occur. Corpus luteum regresses, progesterone and estrogen production decreases. Endometrium degenerates, capillaries rupture and endometrium sloughs off
Male hormones
hypothalamus released gonadotropin-releasing hormone, influencing the anterior pituitary gland to release FSH and LH
releases androgen-binding protein (ABP)
releases testosterone
binds with testosterone to promote spermatogenesis
Male sexual response
excitement phase, plateau, orgasm, resolution, male climacteric
excitement phase
rapid erection due to vasocongestion, elevation of the scrotal sac. Testes increase in size
Plateau phase
thichening of penis, testes continue to increase in size. Nipple erection and sex flush. Orgasm is the climax of the plateau phase
expulsive contractions of the length of the urethra to ejaculate semen containing sperm out of the urethra
resolution phase(final phase)
rapid loss of vasocongestion with the decrease in penis size. Testes descend back into the scrotum
Male Climacteric
physiologic changes occur in older men. Men may need more direct genital stimulation during excitement phase and has decreased testicular elevation
removal of uterus with or w/o removal of the ovaries(oophorectomy)
HRT- hormone replacement therapy
Used to decrease symptoms that women may experience due to menopause. Symptoms such as insomnia, hot flashes, mood swings, and lack of concentration. HRT may protect against osteoporisis and cardiovascular disease
atrophic vaginitis
physiologic changes associated with decreasing amounts of estrogen as women age. Thinning of vaginal tissue, painful intercourse, itching, burning or irritation. pH becomes slightly alkaline increasing susceptibility to infxn
growth of the endometrial tissue outside the uterus. S/S include lower backache, painful intercourse etc
PID pelvic inflammatory disease
pathogenic invasion of the fallopian tubes, ovaries or both. May be gonococcus, streptococcus and staphylococcus and other infxn that are ascending in nature. Risk factors include multiple sexual partners, frequent intercourse, IUDs and childbirth.
S/S low grade fever, pelvic and abdominal pain, foul-smelling vaginal dischange
TSS toxic shoch syndrome
staphylococcus aureus enters the bloodstream. Relationship between TSS and tampon usage.
S/S temp > 102, vomiting, diarrhea and progressive hypotension
Fibroid tumors (leiomyoma)
benign tumors that grow in or on the uterus.
S/S excessive heavy menstrual flow, pelvic pressure, dysmenorrhea, abdominal enlargement and constipation
painful menstruation. Common in nulliparous women, not having intercourse.
S/S uterine cramping, irritation and contractions
absence of menstruation. Primary is absence of menstruation by age 17.(anatomical or genetic abnormalities such as Turner syndrome) Secondary is absence after 6 months of regular periods or 12 months or irregular periods. (anatomic abnormalities, nutritional deficits, excessive exercise, decreased body fat, endocrine dysfunction, emotional disturbances, medication side effects, pregnancy and lactation)
fibrocystic breast disease (FBD)
chronic cystic mastitis. Single or multiple fluid-filled cysts. Vitamin E supplements and elimination of caffeine are recommended
Benign Prostatic hypertrophy (BPH)
progressive adenomatous enlargement of prostate gland that occurs because of aging. Urinary outlet obstruction, decreased force of urine stream, urinary frequency and nocturia
breast cancer
second major cause of ca death among women
cervical ca
most preventable gynecological ca. Abnormal Pap smear.
Most common sign is abnormal bleeding
prostate ca
second leading cause of ca deaths in men.
DX- test include PSA(prostate specific antigen)transrectal ultrasonic exam, and prostatic biopsy
S/S weak urinary stream, increased urinary frequency
support between the vagina and bladder is weakened
downward displacement of the urethra into the vagina
weakening between the vagina and rectum
abnormal opening between internalorgans or between an organ and the exterior body
vesicovaginal fistulas
between vagina and bladder that causes urine to leak into the vagina
rectovaginal fistulas
rectum and vagina and cause flatus and feces to enter vagina. Both fistulas cause excoriation and irritaiton and may lead to severe infxn. some fistuls spontaneously heal, others require surgical excision
Benign Prostate Hypertrophy (BPH)
progressive adnomatous enlargement of the prostate gland, common in aging. Urinary outlet obstruction with hesitancy, decreased force of urine stream, urinary frequency and nocturia
TX- may include alpha-beta blockers that are usually used to treat hypertension
penile implants
treat impotence. Surgical implantation of semi-rigid implant that is flexible or with a hydraulic pump located in the scrotum or end
small molded plastic apparatus fits in the vagina behind the pubic bone and in front of the rectum to provide support for the uterus. Cleaning required once every one to two weeks. Complications include vaginal necrosis or ulceration
scrotal supports
support the scrotum to relieve swelling or decrease discomfort of inflammation post operatively
TURP-transurethral resection of the prostate
includes bladder irrigation to reduce clot formation that could interfere with urinary drainage. Continuous irrigation with a three-way Foley catheter for at least 24 hrs. Irrigant should be subtracted from total output to assess urinary output. Absorption of irrigation fluid may result in water intoxication manifested with mental status changes, agitation, confusion and even convulsions
hysterectomy- post op
assessment of dressing for signs of bleeding during the first 8 hrs. Assess for urinary retention due to temporary bladder atony. Client should also be assessed for development of thrombophlebitis
dilation and curettage
curet of endometrial lining to assess abnormal bleeding patterns, evaluate the uterus or cytological evaluation of the endometrial lining
anterior-posterior colporrhaphy
suturing of the vagina to correct a cystocele(anterior) or rectocele(posterior). Perinial care at least 2x a day and after urination/defecation. Ice packs, sitz baths and heat lamps enhance healing process. No heavy lifting or prolonged standing, walking or sitting and avoidance of intercourse
surgical drainage of a hydrocele. Hydrocele is a nontender, fluid filled mass resulting from interference of lymphatic drainage of the scrotum. The swelling surrounds the testes. Monitor for adequate voiding patterns and give comfort measures.
surgical suturing of an undescended testicle in the scrotum. Monitor for swelling,pain, infxn, and voiding patterns