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24 Cards in this Set

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As in the male, pulsatile GnRH stimulates the ant pituitary to secrete....
FSH/LH
In the female, FSH and LH stimulate...
Steroidgenesis/Follicular development
Ovulation/Luteinization
Estrogen causes maturation and maintenance of the....
fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix and vagina
List 4 actions of progesterone.
negative feedback on FSH/LH
maintains secretory activity of the uterus
maintains pregnancy
development of breasts
What are the 3 phases of the menstrual cycle?
Follicular phase
Ovulation
Luteal phase
When is the follicular phase activated?
the first 14 days of the cycle
what substance causes proliferation of the uterus in the follicular phase?
Estradiol
FSH/LH levels are suppressed
progesterone levels are low
Ovulation occurs on what day
It occurs on app day 15 of the menstrual cycle
it occurs 14 days before menses
Ovulation occurs as a result of the.....
estrogen induced LH surge
estrogen levels decrease just after ovulation
The luteal phase occurs in what part of the menstrual cycle?
days 15-28
Corpus luteum begins to develop and it synthesizes estrogen and progesterone
In the luteal phase what changes undergo at the endometrium?
vascularity and secretory activity on the endometrium for receipt of a fertilized egg
In the luteal phase, what happens if fertilization does not take place?
The corpus luteum regresses. As a result, estradiol and progesterone levels decrease abruptly.
What is menses?
Occurs at days 1-4. the endometrium is sloughed because of withdrawal of estradiol and progesterone
What occurs if fertilization takes place?
the corpus luteum is rescued from regression by human chorionic gonadotropin, which is produced by the placenta
In the first trimester, when do HCG levels peak?
they peak at gestational week 9
Where is progesterone produced in the 2nd and 3rd trimester.
produced in the placenta
In the 2nd and 3rd trimester, how is estrogen produced?
estrogens are produced by the interplay of the fetal adrenal gland and the placenta
How is estrogen produced from the fetal adrenal gland?
It synthesizes dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate(DHEA-S), which is then hydroxlated in the fetal liver. These intermediates are transferred to the placenta, where enzymes remove sulfate and aromatize to estrogens
What is the major placental estrogen?
Estriol
What is human placental lactogen?
It is produced throughout pregnancy. Its actions are similar to those of growth hormone and prolactin
What happens to prolactin levels during lactation?
prolactin levels increase steadily because estrogen stimulates prolactin secretion.
Why does lactation not occur during pregnancy?
because estrogen and progesterone block the action of prolactin on the breast.
Why is ovulation suppressed during lactation?
it is suppressed as long as lactation is in progress.
During lactation, prolactin has what effects?
Inhibits hypothalmic GnRH secretion
Inhibits the action of GnRH, and inhibits LH/FSH secretion
Antagonizes the actions of LH and FSH on the ovaries.