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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
termination of life before fetus can live independently outside the womb
no equipment needed, no chance for pregnancy, 100% effective
a vesicle located at the tip of animal sperm, that contains enzymes needed to dissolve protective layers around the egg
AIDS (Acquired ImmunoDeficiency Syndrome
suppression of the immune system and death owing to opportunistic infections
one of the embryonic membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; in reptiles and birds, serves as waste-storage organ; in mammals, forms most of the umbilical cord
one of the embryonic membranes of reptiles, birds, and mammals; encloses a fluid-filled cavity that envelops the embryo
a procedure for sampling the amniotic fluid surrounding a fetus: A sterile needle is inserted through the abdominal wall, uterus, and amniotic sac of a pregnant woman; 10 to 20 mililiters of amniotic fluid is withdrawn. Various tests may be performed on the fluid and the fetal cells suspended in it to provide information on the developmental and genetic state of the fetus
a male sex hormone; found in intersistial cells; principal effects: secondary sex characteristics and sperm production
5 components of a newborn, scored at a maximum of 10 points; (color, pulse/heart rate, reflex, general activity, respiration); developed by Virginia Apgar
artificial insemination
a selective breeding procedure in which only those individuals with particular traits are chosen as breeders; used mainly to enhance desirable traits in domestic plants and animals; may also be used in evolutionary biology experiments. FROZEN SPERM LASTS UP TO 5 YEARS.
asexual reproduction
one parent/selfing; simplicity, no special reproductive organs, rapid reproduction; all offspring are genetically identical, no genetic variation
ex: binary fission, budding, fragmentation (starfish)
binary fission
the process by which a single bacterium divides in half, producing two identical offspring
example of asexual reproduction
in animals, the embryonic stage attained at the end of the clevage, in which the embryo normally consists of a hollow ball with a wall one or several layers thick
asexual reproduction by the growth of a minature copy, or bud, of the adult animal on the body of the parent. the bud breaks off to begin independent existence.
cesarean section
1 out of every 4 births in the US. usually done because of cephalo-pelvic disproportion, problems during birth, STD exposure
a ring of connective tissue at the outer end of the uterus, leading into to the vagina
1st stage of syphillis: found near the port of entry
bacteria, most common STD, causes eye infection, may lead to trachoma, nongonoccoal urethritis in males/infection of cervix or uterus in females
*treatable and curable
chronic villi
in mammalian embryos, a fingerlike projection of the chorion that penetrares the uterine lining and forms the embryonic portion of the placenta
the outermost empryonic membrance in reptiles, birds and mammals; in birds and reptiles, functions mostly in gas exchange; in mammals, forms most of the embryonic part of the placenta
the early cell division of embryos in which little or no growth occurs between divisions; reduces the cell size and distributes gene-regulating substances to the newly formed cell.
doesnt carry urine or gamete; exclusively for sexual pleasure, no other function
an external structure of the female reproductive system; composed of erectile tissue; a sensitive point of stimulation during sexual response
offspring that are produced by mitosis and are therefore genetically identical to each other
the process of producing many identical copies of a gene; also the production of many genetically identical copies of an organism
a contraceptive sheath worn over the penis during intercourse to prevent sperm from being deposited in the vagina
corpus luteum
in the mammalian ovary, a structure that is derived from the follicle after ovulation and that secretes the hormones estrogen and progesterone
a contraceptive rubber cap that fits snugly over the cervix, preventing the sperm from entering the uterus and therby preventing pregnancy; must be fitted by a doctor
happens during dialation/cervical stage... head becomes visible
in reference to the cervix getting larger and widening in preparation for birthing process
magic number is 10cm or 4 inches across
technique: cell put into petri dish, low concentration of nutrients, unfertilized egg- sucked out DNA, fused mammory gland and egg (replacing nucleus), electric pulse allowed fusion and jump started process, implantation
the outermost embryonic tissue layer, which gives rise to structures such as hair, the epidermis of the skin, and the nervous system
thinking and drawing back of the cervix during the first stage of the brithing process (dialation/cervical stage)
4-5 ml of semen with 40 million sperm/ml expulsed during orgasm
in animals, the stages of development that begin with the fertilization of the egg cell and end with hatching or birth; in mammals in particular, the early stages in which the developing animal does not yet resemble the adult og the species
the innermost layer of small, close-fitting cells of the cortex of a root that form a ring around the vascular cylinder
the nutrient inner lining of the uterus
a series of tubes that connect with and recieve sperm from the seminiferous tubules of the testes
type of sexual reproduction/ intercourse; complex sequence of events to bring sperm near the eggs
Charles Darwin
evolution by natural selection, "Decent of Man..." brought topic of reproduction into literature
cuting of vagina to lengthen for more ease during the birthing process
in vertebrates, a female sex hormone, produced by follicle cells of the ovary, that stimulates follicle development of secondary sex characteristics, and growth of the uterine lining
source: ovary and placenta ADRENAL GLAND
effects: maintain secondary sex characteristics and thicken endometrium
external fertilization
usually limited to animals living in the water, large gonads, large number of gametes are produced, can release 100 million eggs each season
the fusion of male and female haploid gametes, forming a zygote
fetal monitor
placed on the mother during the birthing process to monitor and evaluate the condition of the fetus
the later stages of mammalion embryonic development (after the second month for humans) when the developing animal has come to resemble the adult of the species
in the ovary of female mammals, the oocyte and its surrounding accessory cells
Sigmund Freud
proposed that mental disorders can be traced to childhood sexual trauma or repressed sexual desires, penis envy
a haploid sex cell formed in sexually reproducing organisms
male: sperm
female: eggs
in animal development, a three-layer embryo with ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm layer normally elcloses the primitive gut
the prcess whereby a blastula develops into a gastrula, including the formation of endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm
an organ where reproductive cells are formed
males: testes
females: ovaries
bacteria, symptoms can be found in males and female; no vaccine but antibiotics, resistant strains, new cases (millions per year); may lead to sterility or uterine scarring
males: white oozing of urethra
women: no early symptoms, asymptomatic
an organism that posesses both male and female sexual organs
tingling and itching at the point of entry, may develop blisters after 2 weeks
HSV 1- causes cold sores (oral)
active and inactive stages; not curable; may lead to blindness or cervical cancer; cesarean section is necessary for birth
usually positive after 4 to 6 weeks after contact. generally no obvious symptoms but individuals are fully infectous.
remnant from development, covers the opening to the vagina
the process whereby the early embryo embeds itself within the lining of the uterus; done day 12; spotting, HCG production; blastocyst is withing the endometrium
in vivo fertilization
internal; in life
in vitro fertilization
external fertilization, in glass
inner cell mass
in human embryonic development, the cluster of cells, on one side of the blastocyst, that will develop into the embryo
internal fertilization
(adaptation to living on land); reproduction inside female, less production on gametes, higher probability of fertilization; lower probability of gametes drying up; allows for sexual selection; requires communication using sounds or colors
intersistial cell

should this be "interstitial cell" ??
in vertebrate testis, a testosterone producing cell located between the seminuferous tubules
stimulate sperm production
maintain secondary sexual characteristics
effects behavior