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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 organs/structures of the male reproductive system?
1) Testis
2) Genital ducts
3) Accessory glands
4) Penis
What is the tunica vaginalis?
Double layer covering the testis.
What is the tunica albuginea?
The covering just beneath the tunica vaginalis.
What is the mediastinum testis?
Thickening structure at the posterior surface. Rete testis are located here.
What 4 components of the duct system are intratesticular?
1) Seminiferous tubules
2) Tubuli recti
3) Rete testis
4) Efferent ducts
What structures are found within the seminiferous tubules?
Sertoli cells, spermatogonia --> primary spermatocytes --> spermatids --> spermatozoa.
Small amount of myoid cells (smooth muscle).
What is the tubuli recti?
Straight tubules located immediately after the seminiferous tubules and just before the rete testes.
What is the rete testes?
Tubules just after tubuli recti, between seminiferous tubules and epididymus, in the posterior mediastinum.
What testicular fluid is secreted from the rete testes?
Steroids, proteins, androgen binding proteins.
What is the efferent duct?
Connection between the rete testes and the epididymus that contain cilia to propel immature sperm toward the epididymus.
What are the three components of the extratesticular duct system?
1) Epididymus
2) Ductus (vas) deferens
3) Urethra
What is the (ductus) epididymus?
Mature sperm are stored and gain motility. Non-motile ciliated exist called stereocilia. Smooth muscle for sperm movement.
What is the ductus (vas) deferens?
Straight tube with stereocilia containing lots of muscle for sperm ejaculation.
What are the three muscle layers of the ductus (vas) deferens?
1) Inner longitudinal
2) Middle circular
3) Outer longitudinal
*Key landmark for vas deferens.
What is the ampulla?
Thickening of the vas deferens just before the prostrate, after which the ductus deferens becomes the seminal vesicle.
What are the ejaculatory ducts?
Component of the vas deferens in the prostate gland that will soon become the urethra.
What are the 3 phases of spermatogenesis?
1) Spermatocytogenesis
2) Meiosis
3) Spermatogenesis
What occurs in spermatocytogenesis?
Type A spermatogonia embedded in the basal lamina differentiate into type B spermatogonia, which will become primary spermatocytes.
What occurs in the first meiotic division?
Primary spermatocytes (4n) become secondary spermatocytes (2n), exchanging genetic material.
What occurs in the secondary meiotic division?
Secondary spermatocytes (2n) become spermatids (n).
What spermatozoa precursors divide by mitosis?
Spermatogonia A and B.
Which spermatozoa precursors divide in the first meiotic division?
Primary spermatocytes.
Which spermatozoa precursors divide in the second meiotic division?
Secondary spermatocytes.
What do cohesins do?
Bind maternal chromatids to paternal chromatids.
What does separase do?
Degrades cohesin to allow chromatid separation during meiosis.
What is spermiogenesis?
Differentiation of spermatids to spermatozoa (detachment from sertoli cells).
What are the 3 phases of spermiogenesis?
1) Golgi phase
2) Acrosomal phase
3) Maturation phase
What is the Golgi phase?
First stage of spermiogenesis where acrosomal granules and vesicles begin to form, along with the flagellum.
What is the Acrosomal phase?
Second stage of spermiogenesis where the acrosomal cap forms, containing hydrolytic enzymes.
What hydrolytic enzymes are found in the acrosomal cap?
Hyaluronidase, neuramidase, acid phosphatase, protease.
What is the maturation phase?
Third stage of spermiogenesis where spermatozoa is released from the sertoli cell.
What are the 2 types of cells in the testis?
1) Sertoli cells
2) Leydig (interstitial) cells
What are the 4 functions of Sertoli cells?
1) Physical support for developing germ cells.
2) Protection by tight junctions forming the blood-testis barrier. Primary spermatocytes would be considered foreign and attacked by immune system without this.
3) Provide nutrients to stem cells.
4) Phagocytosis of residual cytoplasm.
Name the 4 hormone and associated components of the Sertoli cells.
1) Activin
2) Inhibin
3) Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH)
4) Aromatase converts testosterone to estradiol, which goes to the circulation and Leydig cells
Where are Leydig (interstitial) cells located?
Just outside the basement membrane of seminiferous tubules.
What do Leydig cells do?
Synthesize testosterone from cholesterol, relaying it to the blood stream or through Sertoli cells and lumen of seminiferous tubules.
Describe the pathway of testosterone synthesis.
1) Acetate is converted to cholesterol in SER.
2) Cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone in mitochondria.
3) Pregnenolone is converted to testosterone in SER.
What hormones are involved in regulation of the testes?
1) GnRH from hypothalamus
2) FSH/LH from anterior pituitary
3) ABP, ABP-testosterone, and inhibin from Sertoli cells
4) Testosterone from Leydig cells.
What are the 3 accessory glands in the male reproductive system?
1) Seminal vesicles
2) Prostate gland
3) Bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland.
What are seminal vesicles?
Gland that secretes spermatozoa-activating substances (fructose, prostaglandins, citrate, inositol).
What is the prostate gland?
Gland that synthesizes and stores alkaline prostatic fluid. The gland contains prostatic concretions, or dense hardening bodies indicative of prostate glands.
What is the bulbourethral (Cowper's) gland?
Gland within the prostate that secretes lubrication.
Name the erectile tissue of the penis.
1) 2 dorsal corpora cavernosa
2) ventral corpus spongiosum
What components are found within the dorsal corpora cavernosa?
Central arteries, which give rise to the Helicine arteries and nutrient branches.
How does the penis achieve erection?
Parasympathetic nerve activates blood flow into the Helicine arteries and sinusoids of the erectile tissue, causing erection.
What are the glands of Littre, and where are they located?
Mucous secreting glands in the penile urethra of the ventral corpus spongiosum which secretes mucous into the penile urethral.