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32 Cards in this Set

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What are some of the advantages of using ultrasound? (5)
NO IONIZING RADIATION

ability to see anatomy/path in real time

Portability

Independent from organ function

Ability to monitor blood flow (To gain venous access, less chance for vascular injury, etc.)
what is posterior acoustical shadowing? When does it occur?

**
when the sound beam of an ultrasound is stopped

happens when ultrasounding over bone
Please list the colors of the following densities on ULTRASOUND

Bone/Ca
Water
Soft Tissue
Fat
Air
Bone or calcium: white (echogenic)
Water: black (sonolucent/anechoic)
Soft tissues: varying shades of gray
Fat: white (echogenic)
Air: very poor conductor of US waves: a limiting factor
Most important role of ultrasound?

***
MOST IMPORTANT ROLE IS DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN CYST AND SOLID
fetal pole
On MRI, what is the difference between T1 and T2
T1: anatomic

T2: pathologic
On ultrasound, what female reproductive structure should NOT be seen? When would you see it?
FALLOPIAN TUBE

abnormal, or dilated with fluid (infectious process)

think PID
most common tumor that we see in the uterus?

***
UTERINE FIBROID
uterine fibroid
uterine fibroid on x ray
What is the most common ovarian tumor seen on ultrasound? (2nd?3rd?)
DERMOID-have to take them out

serous cystadenoma

mucinous cystadenoma
give the Houndsfield units for fluid, air, bone, fat
Fluid: 0-20

Air: -1000

Bone: 1000

Fat: -50ish
pt presents with abnormal vaginal bleeding, pain, and adnexal mass. They have a positive pregnancy test...what is going on?
ectopic pregnancy
In the female pelvis, what is the imaging procedure of choice?

What is the most common uterine mass?

What is the most common tumor of the ovary?

intrauterine “pseudo-sac”, adnexal mass, adnexal and/pr cul de sac blood or fluid are signs of what?


***TEST
In the female pelvis, what is the imaging procedure of choice? ULTRASOUND

What is the most common uterine mass? FIBROID

What is the most common tumor of the ovary? DERMOID (a dermoid is a mature teratoma...teeth/hair...gross)

intrauterine “pseudo-sac”, adnexal mass, adnexal and/pr cul de sac blood or fluid are signs of what? ECTOPIC PREGNANCY
If you suspect torsion of the testicle, what imaging modality do you use? If you see that it is not, what is likely going on?

TEST
ULTRASOUND

Epididymitis
Testicular microlithiasis

potential for germ cell tumors
What is the most accurate measurement for fetal dating between 7-12 weeks?

****TEST
Crown rump length
what confirms a pregnancy?
doppler heart rate on US
Nuchal Translucency shows you what? what should it be in mm


**TEST
Fold at back of neck
Marker for downs, trisomy 13, 18, XO
Marker for Cardiac Defects

EARLIEST TO SHOW THESE (before nasal bone)

SHOULD BE UNDER 3mm
when should the nasal bone be present? if it is not, what are you thinking the baby might have

***
12-14 weeks

increased risk of Downs
what is the single most important measurement to make in late pregnancy? What does ti show?

**TEST
Abdominal Circumference

Reflects more of fetal size and weight rather than age

Serial measurements are useful in monitoring growth of the fetus

(slide 86)
what is placenta previa?
The placenta overlaps the internal cervical os

A cause for antepartem (before birth) hemorrhage

May necessitate C-section
what is polyhydramnios?
A condition in which the pregnant uterus contains too much amniotic fluid
It is believed that amniotic fluid is manufactured by the amnion
Babies urinate and sweat, also adding to the fluid
Fluid is removed from the amniotic sac when the baby swallows and the fluid is taken into the bloodstream and transferred to the mother's bloodstream via the placenta
THINGS TO KNOW

When is fetal dating most accurate? Using what?

When is the gestational sac seen at its earliest?

What is a marginal placenta previa?

**TEST
Fetal dating is most accurate in early pregnancy using CRL between 7 and 12 weeks

The gestational sac can be identified as early as 4.5 weeks

A marginal placenta previa partially overlaps or approximates the internal cervical os
not sure if we need to know this, but what are the following reports indicative of following Breast Imaging

0
1
2
3
4
5
0/A – Needs additional assesment
1/N – Normal
2/B – Benign
3/PB – Probably Benign
4/S – Suspicious
5/M – Malignant
common findings of malignant breast cancer on imaging?

***
Taller than wide

shadowing

dense

irregular border
which is a cyst, which is cancer?
Left: Cyst

Right: cancer
breast cancer
when looking at a mammogram, what are the 2 thinks your looking for?

**TEST
asymmetric density

calcifications
classic breast cancer-spiculated-small breast
What is a valuable function of breast MRI?
finding a second cancer within the same breast that already has some cancer