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47 Cards in this Set

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What is renal clearance?
Process by which a measurement is made of how much a substance can be cleared from the body per given unit of time.
What is a good measure of the glomerular filtration rate?
Creatinine
What is the proportionality of GFR and plasma creatinine concentration?
Inverse. As GFR goes up, plasma creatinine goes down.
What is proportionality of BUN to GFR?
Inverse. As BUN levels increase GFR drops.
What are the three general renal functions?
Regulatory
Excretory
Endocrine
What is renal reabsorption?
Moving from the tubular system to the peritubular system.
What is renal secretion?
Moving from the peritubular system to the tubular system.
What is renal excretion?
Moving from the tubular system to urine.
Is the kidney able to regenerate?
Yes.
What is the normal Ph of Urine?
6.0
The aldesterone feedback mechanism is used in balancing what two fluids?
Potassium, Salt and water.
What gland is used in balancing calcium and phosphorus?
Parathyroid.
What are the eight tests of urinalysis.
Specific gravity
Ph
Color
Protein
Casts
RBC
WBC
Glucose
In renal disease, what is the specific gravity?
Usually fixed at 1.010
What is azotemia?
Increased blood level of urea.
Where is creatinine found mostly?
Muscle.
What is osmolality?
Total number of particles in solution. Normal is 290. Regulates release of ADH.
Name two types of body fluids.
ICF and ECF
Hypovolemia is a deficit of what type of fluid?
ECF
In hypervolemia, what type of fluid is involved?
ECF
What is the treatment (Tx) for hypervolemia?
diuretics, restrict fluids
Where is Na actively absorbed?
In the intestines.
What material is the chief base of blood?
Na
What is the Tx for hyponatremia?
Replace Na
What is the Tx for Hypernatremia?
Oral Na restricted, diuretics.
Sodium comprises what percentage of cations in ECF?
90%
What cation comprises ICF?
Potassium
If a person has muscular twitching, eyeballs sunken and soft, cramping abdominal pain, and headache/confusion, what is the most likely diagnosis?
Hyponatremia.
If a person is agitated, has dry mucus membranes, marked thirst, flulshed face, increased BP, and tachycardia, what is the most likely diagnosis?
Hypernatremia.
What is the treatment for hyperkalemia?
50% glucose IV with 50 U of insulin, diet low in K, Kayexalate.
Acute glomerulonephritis is commonly associated with what bacterial infection?
streptococcus
What are some symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?
hematuria, RBCs, proteinuria, decreased GFR, oliguria, hypertension, edema around eyes.
What is the most common cause of chronic end-stage renal failure?
glomerulonephritis
What are the symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis?
hematuria, edema, RBC casts, proteinuria, decreased GFR, oliguria, hypertension.
What are the two types of immune mechanisms commonly contribute to glomerular injury?
1. Deposition of circulating soluble antigen-antibody complexes, often with complement components.

2. Formation of antibodies specific for the anti-glomerular basement membrane.
What are the two major changes in urine that are distinctive of severe glomerularitis?
1. Hematuria
2. proteinuria
What are three ways to evaluate and treat glomerularnephritis?
1. diagnosis confirmed by proteinuria, RBC's, WBC's, casts
2. biopsy
3. treat primary causing disease.
What is epoetin alfa?
An RBC stimulator.
Increased Hct leads to:
increased energy, activity, excercise
improved eating, sleeping
improved cognitive function
improved sexual function
What are the 3 principles of dialysis?
diffusion
osmosis
ultrafiltration
What are some situations that require dialysis?
azotemia, fluid overload, increased K, acidosis, uremic symptoms, nephrotoxic agents
Which dialysis method is slower, hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis?
peritoneal
Which gland regulates calcium?
parathyroid
What is the importance of calcium?
bones, teeth, cardiac function, muscle activity
What is the importance of potassium?
important for contraction of heart
What are the different cast indicators?
white cell cast = infection
hyaline cast = protein in urine..stress
granular cast = degenerative nuclei
waxy cast = indicate tubular inflammation, chronic renal disease
fatty cast = nephrotic syndrome
What is the clinical progession of acute renal failure?
oliguria, diuresis, recovery