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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is mode of action of mannitol?
Osmotic diuretic. It increases tubular fluid osmolarity, producing increased urine flow.
What is mannitol used for?
To decrease intracranial and intraocular pressure.
What is the toxicity of mannitol?
PULMONARY EDEMA! So contraindicated in CHF!!
What is MOA of acetazolamide?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. Causes self limited NaHCO3- diuresis and reduction in total body HCO3- stores. ACTS ON THE PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE!!
What are the clinical uses of acetazolamide?
Glaucoma (in the eye, a reduction in amt of bicarbonate secreted in aqueous humor and decreased intraocular pressure).

2) Urinary alkalinization
3) Metabolic alkalosis
4) Altitutude sickness.
What are the toxicity of acetazolamide?
Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, neuropathy, NH3 toxicity, sulfa allergy!! Myopia, tinnitus.
What is MOA of furosemide?
Sulfonamide loop diuretic. Inhibits cotransport system (Na+, K+, 2Cl-) of thick ascending limb of loop of Henle.

2) Abolishes hypertonicity of medulla!!

3) Prevents concentration of urine.

4) Increases Ca++ excretion, so used in hypercalcemia: Loops Lose Calcium!!!
What are the clinical uses of furosemide?
Edematous states: CHF, cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, pulmonary edema,


What is the toxicity of furosemide?



Sulfa allergy!!!



OH DANG. Ototoxicity, hypokalemia, Dehydration, allergy, Nephritis, Gout.
What is MOA of ethacrynic acid?
Phenoxyacetic acid derivative (NOT a sulfonamide)!!! Blcoks Na+, K+, 2CL- pump in TAL of loop of Henle.
What is ethacrynic acid used for?
Diuresis in patients allergic to sulfa drugs!!
What is MOA of hydrochlorothiazide?
Thiazide diuretic. Inhibits NaCL reabsorption in early distal tubule, reducing diluting capacity of nephron. Decreases calcium excretion!!
What is clinical use of hydrochlorothiazide?
Hypertension, CHF, idiopathic hypercalciuria, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
What is toxicity of hydrochlorothiazide?
Hypokalmie metabolic alkalosis, hyponatremia.


Sulfa Allergy!!!
What are some K+ sparing diuretics?
spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride!!
What is mechanism of spironolactone?
Competitive aldosterone receptor antagonist in cortical collecting tubule!!
What is mechanism of triamterene and amiloride?
Block Na+ channels in the cortical collecting tubule, so cant reabsorb Na+ and pump K+ into the urine.
What is the clinical use of K+ sparing diuretics?
Hyperaldosteronism, K+ depletion, CHF.
What is the toxicity of spironolactone?
Hyperkalemia, gynecomastia, antiandrogen effects.
What is the effect of all diuretics on NaCL in urine?
All increase salt in urine!!
What is effect of all diuretics on urine K+?
All increase K++ in urine except the K+ sparing diuretics.
What diuretics cause acidosis of blood?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibtors, K+sparing diuretics.
Which diuretics can cause alkalosis of blood?
Loop diuretics

Which diuretics increase urine Ca++?
Loop diuretics
Which diuretics decrease urine Ca++?
What are some examples of Ace inhibitors?
Captopril, Enalapril, Lisinopril.
What is mechanism of ACE inhibitors?
Inhibits angiotensive converting enzyme, reducing levels of angiotensin II and preventing inactivation of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator.

renin is increased due to loss of feedback inhibition.
What are the uses of ACE inhibitors?
Hypertension, CHF, diabetic renal disese.
What is the toxicity of ACE inhibitors?
Cough, Angioedema, Proteinuria, Taste changes, hypotension, Pregnancy problems, Rash, increased renin, lower angiotensin II. Also hyperkalemia.
What is mode of action of Losartan?
Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. So does NOT cause cough.