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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of x ray include
Transports energy through space (quanta or photons)
It is distinguished by its wavelength, frequency, and energy
The energy of electromagnetic radiation is proportional to the..
Physical Properties of x rays include
variable wavelength and energy level
they travel in a straight line
can penetrate all matter to some degree
cause certain substances to fluoresce
produces invisible image that can be made visible by processing the film
has ability to excite or ionize atoms and molecules of a substance
cause biological changes in living cells and tissue leading to damage or death of affected cells
anode is _ charged

cathode is _ charged

The x ray tube has two
electrodes that have opposite electric charges + -
The 5 elements required for production of x rays
1- a source of electrons
2- acceleration of electrons
3- an obstacle-free path for electrons to travel in
4- a target on which electrons will collide
5- a glass envelop that creates a vacuum environment
At the cathode is a filament that appears as a
coiled tungsten wire

tungsten has high melting point and high atomic number
When heated, the cathode
emits/discharges electrons that are directed towards the anode
(electrons become excited and their energy level exceeds the binding energy
The filament is found in the __ made of __
focusing cup
the focusing cup
focuses the beam of electrons on the focal spot of the anode
mA milliamperage is the
amount of energy in the circuit
Stationary (fixed) Anodes are found in...
low output machines with small capacity for xray production (low mA capabilities) such as dental and portable units
the focal spot of a stationary anode is contained in
a cylinder of copper
consequences of a pitted target include..
radiographs that appear lighter than expected
xrays that scatter in different directions
A rotating anode is
a disk shaped metal (usually alloy) containing a tungsten insert around the periphery
disk has diameter of about 3 cm with beveled edge
used in higher output machines with capabilities of 100-200 mA
in an xray tube the focal spot is angled
at about 20 degrees from the vertical
a small focal spot angle results in
less intensity of the xray beam on the anode side
stronger xray beam toward the cathode side

(heel effect)
the smaller the anode angle the
greater the heel effect
decreasing the angle of target also
decreases the field size of the beam
the smaller the size of the focal spot
the sharper the radiographic image
the heel effect is the
variation of intensity of the xray beam
the penumbra (halo) effect is caused by
any focal point larger than a pinpoint
Stationary anodes have a ___ focal spot compared to rotating anodes
effective focal spot is the
the area of the focal spot that is visible through the x ray tube window and directed towards the film
actual focal spot is the
area that is perpendicular to the surface of the target area
the (actual focal spot) anode heel effect is an advantage when radiogaphing
areas of unequal thickness such as thorax and abdomen
Increasing the mA will
increase the number of x rays
x rays are produced only when there is both
a source of electrons
and a voltage difference across the anode and cathode gap
mAs (milliampere seconds)are used to
quantify the amount of radiation produced by the x ray tube
kVp refers to the
maximum voltage applied to the x ray tube across the anode-cathode gap
kilovoltage is the
amount of electrical energy applied to the anode and cathode that accelerates the electrons from the cathode to the anode
what are the 3 basic x ray machine controls that a user must routinely adjust for the proper exposure?
the kVp mainly controls the
quality of the x ray beam

(the harder the target is hit, the more penetrating)
the ma and exposure time both affect the quantity of x rays produced because..
the electrons have more time to bombard the target and produce x rays