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238 Cards in this Set

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What does adhering to the standards of dress and appearance promote?
Unity within an organization, pride in oneself in the organization.
If we maintain proper wear of the uniform at all time, including in public, how will this influence the public's opinion of the military?
The public will see the military as a well-disciplined organization capable of carrying out its mission, down to the last detail, no matter how trivial.
What is considered the most important benefit of drill for the military member?
Teamwork development
How do ceremonies restore morale and build e'spirit de corps?
It takes the cooperative effort by all members to reach a common goal requiring a great deal of discipline and practice.
What are three ways to honor the flag?
Salute it
Place it in position of honor
Never dip it on any person or object
None
What are two elements of military etiquette?
Kindness and respect
What is the impact of gossip on the work center?
It creates a barrier of effective communications that inhibits productive work and accomplishment of the mission.
What is the purpose of the military salute?
Saluting is a significant symbol of the military profession recognized as a mark of a well-trained, disciplined military member. It serves as a greeting and as an acknowledgement of being a member of the profession of arms.
Where is the first and second place of honor?
The first place of honor is always on the right and the second place is that of being in front or "going first"
Define the aspects of wellness.
Exercise, nutrition, managing your weight and stress, not smoking, keeping current on immunizations and physical check-ups.
What is the purpose of aerobic exercise?
Beneficial changes occur in the heart, lungs, vascular system, and other tissues of the body. Your body becomes more efficient in moving air into and out of the lungs as your hearts' pumping efficiency increases with less effort. The blood and muscles are better in transporting and utilizing oxygen.
What benefits do you gain from strength training?
Stronger muscles, greater endurance of movement, improved alignment and muscle balance, heart rate, and better physique.
What is the purpose of the warm-up phase?
Producing a physical state of readiness by gradually increasing the breathing, heart rate, and body temperature to prime the muscles for upcoming activity...
Explain the FIT concept.
It stands for Frequency, Intensity, and Time
None
How does dehydration affect your exercise workout?
The consistency of your blood thickens which causes the heart to work harder to pump thicker blood out to the body.
What are the 6 major categories of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
What is the most efficient method to achieve permanent weight loss?
Decrease your calorie intake and increase you calorie output.
What causes stressful events to become a problem?
Stressful events themselves are not harmful; it is the inability to cope with too much stress that creates problems.
Explain how stress can be positive.
It can serve as a motivator or initiator for activity.
What are the effects of smoking?
Lung disease, high blood pressure, cancers of the mouth, throat, and bladder, stomach ulcers, and birth defects
What factors influence maintaining a healthy lifestyle?
Living and working environments, inherited characteristics, and medical care you've received.
What are some responsibilities a military citizen has in maintaining state of well being?
Eat healthy, exercise regularly, get plenty of sleep, abstain from smoking, and have effective methods for managing stress.
What is the purpose of the warm-up phase?
Producing a physical state of readiness by gradually increasing the breathing, heart rate, and body temperature to prime the muscles for upcoming activity...
Explain the FIT concept.
It stand s for Frequency, Intensity, and Time
How does dehydration affect your exercise workout?
The consistency of your blood thickens which causes the heart to work harder to pump thicker blood out to the body.
What are the 6 major categories of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water
What is the most efficient method to achieve permanent weight loss?
Decrease your calorie intake and increase you calorie output.
What causes stressful events to become a problem?
Stressful events themselves are not harmful; it is the inability to cope with too much stress that creates problems.
Explain how stress can be positive.
It can serve as a motivator or initiator for activity.
What are the effects of smoking?
Lung disease, high blood pressure, cancers of the mouth, throat, and bladder, stomach ulcers, and birth defects
What factors influence maintaining a healthy lifestyle?
Living and working environments, inherited characteristics, and medical care you've received.
What are some responsibilities a military citizen has in maintaining state of well being?
Eat healthy, exercise regularly, get plenty of sleep, abstain from smoking, and have effective methods for managing stress.
How can you be a wellness role model?
Your commitment to high degree of wellness will provide an example for subordinates to follow. As a supervisor you need to be out in forefront, leading the way for those you supervise.
How does affective stress management help us as military citizens?
We're better able to deal with stressful situations by first recognizing them and then managing our time and controlling our emotions when the situations occur.
What are some "common" meanings of ethics?
Ethics is knowing the difference between right and wrong; ethics is what is used to determine what action to pursue; ethics are the standards by which we act; ethics are our behaviors; ethics are our adopted attitudes and beliefs.
List examples of written forms of our military code of ethics.
The Oath of Enlistment
UCMJ
Code of Conduct
DOD reg. 5500.7-R, Joint Ethics Regulation
None
Based on AFI 36-2909'sassertions concerning professional relationships, what are some inferences we can make concerning unprofessional relationships?
Unprofessional relations are deadly to the organizations, create distrust, destroy communication, foster disrespect, and distract from mission.
How do Fraud waste and abuse differ from each other?
Fraud is the deliberate attempt to deceive or deprive the AF of something of value. Waste is the extravagant, careless, or needless expenditure of AF resources. Abuse is the intentional wrongful or improper use of AF resources.
Why is "Integrity first" first?
Integrity is essential. It's inner voice of self-control and starting point in everything we do in the AF.
Why is "responsibility and accountability" an important tenet of integrity first?
No person of integrity tries to shift the blame to others. A person with integrity does not take credit for the work of others.
Why is "faith in the system" an important tenet of service before self?
It is important to believe that the processes and people in place will do the right thing, that justice in the end will prevail, and that others will act responsibly in their actions. When we lose faith in these systems, we start to adopt a view that our way of doing things is better; we start to determine these systems for our own personal reasons; and our subordinate may be tempted to follow suit.
What are some examples of AF "systems" we trust?
Enlisted Evaluation System, decoration system, promotion system, UCMJ, supervisors supervising their people properly, chain of command, IG system
What are some of the important milestones in the code of conduct?
-Aftermath of Korean Conflict -1955,Executive Order 10631 -review done after Vietnam conflict -1977 Amended article V - In 1988 language was changed to become gender neutral
Define "parole" in the context of prisoner of war?
Parole is a promise by a prisoner of war to a captor to fulfill certain conditions, such as agreeing not to escape nor fight against once released, in exchange for such favors as relief from physical bondage, improved food and living conditions.
Why does the enemy use "parole"?
To gain favor in hopes of gaining military information.
Define three general types of hostile detention.
-Hostile government detention -Hostile government-sponsored terrorist detention -Independent terrorist group detention
What are the key points of Article IV?
-Even in captivity we are to carry out our responsibilities and exercise our authority. -Senior person, regardless of branch of service, must take control -Without discipline, camp organization, resistance, even personal survival may be impossible -Communication breaks down the barriers of isolation that he enemy may attempt to construct
What is the purpose of LOAC?
A broad set of rules defining how war is fought. The rules are generalized rather than extremely specific, and are designed to apply to any armed conflict. Their purpose is to prevent unnecessary loss of lives or destruction of property on the battlefield.
What forbidden targets covered by law?
-Noncombatants -villages, towns or cities -civilian and private property
What forbidden tactics are covered by law?
-Firing on enemy soldiers after their offer surrender -using civilians as shields -using poison -altering weapons or ammo to cause undo suffering
Under LOAC what should your response be if given an order which would result in a crime?
You are not required to carry out the order; you are required to stop the act from occurring and report it to your chain of command.
According to the text, what are some characteristics of leadership?
-Leaders, lead -Leaders are not always on top -leaders motivate others
What measurement tools are available to assess leadership skills?
Scores of assessments, evaluations, tests, indices, surveys ect.
In developing an effective time management plan, what two step plan can you use?
Establish a "To Do" list Prioritize your tasks
Explain the A-B-C Priority system.
Categorize your tasks by level of importance. A-have to do, ASAP; B-not as urgent; C-nice to do
What is the key to prioritizing tasks?
To establish and focus on the 20% of the "80-20" Rule
How does time management impact work center effectiveness?
It leads to efficiency and increased productivity
Name a key element to keep in mind when organizing your desk or workstation.
Consider level of organization a structured work area contributes to productivity
How can you use delegation as an effective time-saving technique?
By distributing a portion of your workload to others, you can delegate the lowest priority tasks that are challenging you can enhance subordinate training.
What planning tools are available to help you manage your work center responsibilities?
Calendars, planners, organizers, and personal digital assistants.
What is recognized worldwide as one of the biggest time-wasters?
The telephone
Regarding time management, how do we fulfill our responsibilities as NCOs’ and demonstrate our adherence to the AF core values?
By properly managing our time, we make a positive impact on our work center.
What programs should we be actively involved in to maintain a high degree of proficiency in our specialty?
Programs offered through education services, with special emphasis on career development courses and the CCAF program.
In meeting the objective of PME how does time management help?
Effective time management can improve our performance by helping to free up time that can be used to increase our knowledge about the AF as a profession and the role we play in it.
What is the definition of stress?
The reaction or wear and tear our bodies experience to an external demand place by our continually hanging environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us creating positive and negative feelings or behaviors.
What does GAS stand for and what are its three stages?
GAS stands for General Adaptation Syndrome. The three stages are Alarm reaction, Resistance, and Exhaustion.
What is social density and how can it create stress in the workplace?
An individual's requirement for personal space is frequently violated because of overcoming, stress can result.
What are the 4 variables related to stress intensity levels?
Personal perception
Social support
Locus of control
Behavior or personality types A&B
None
What are the seven subcategories of organizational; stressors?
Job stressors
Role stressors
Environmental stressors
Interpersonal stressors
Leadership stressors
Organizational stressors
Change stressors
None
What do organizational structure and change stressors stem from?
From the level of decision making and the magnitude of rules and regulations
Why do extra-organizational stressors need to be addressed?
If left undetected or addressed, they can build up and cause problems, either alone or in concert with organizational.
What are the 3 outcomes of distress?
a combination of physiological, psychological or behavioral outcomes
What is the most common behavioral reaction to stress seen in the workplace?
Alcohol consumption
How is an organization impacted from the behavior of personal distress?
It can impact quantity and quality of work produced, and result in abuse of equipment, waste of resources and supplies.
What are the two goals of stress management programs and methods?
To provide individual and/or organizational health and to minimize individual and organizational distress.
What is the purpose of individual stress management methods?
To change your view of potential stressors, altering the response pattern and treating specific problems caused by stress.
None
How does an individual accomplish overload avoidance?
Identify and avoid busy work, delegate or empower when possible, learn to say no, attempt to negotiate reasonable deadlines.
What are organizational stress methods used for?
To help members adjust to and manage those stressors which cannot be removed.
What are the benefits of increased subordinate involvement?
-Reduction in tardiness and absenteeism -improvement in supervisor subordinate relation -greater acceptance of change -greater ease in handling subordinates -greater buy-in to decisions made
What is the definition of discipline as it relates to the AF?
A specific type or pattern of behavior intended to ensure work center effectiveness and mission accomplishment brought about by a state of order and obedience.
How does discipline affect the AF culture?
Negative-a unit that experiences several disciplinary problems, mission effectiveness and team cohesion is endangered. positive: well-disciplined unit is likely to see mission carried out with minimal problems
Why is the status of discipline important to the AF?
Disciplinary status makes a statement about the health of a unit and the individual in the unit.
Explain how substance abuse impacts productivity.
Decline in productivity due to members being impaired by the substance and effects and distractions resulting from the abuse.
Explain how time in the work center is impacted by substance abuse.
The affected member spends more time away from the work center in order to take care of the problem. Thus making it more difficult in meeting suspense’s.
How do the negative impacts on time and productivity in the work center impact the work center morale?
Others in the work center must do more to attempt to compensate for the person dealing with a substance abuse problem. They must work longer hours and morale begins to decline as workers feel overwhelmed.
Give an example of a potential safety mishap that could result due to substance abuse in your work center.
Provide a personal example focusing on a potential safety mishap that could occur as a result of substance abuse.
Describe the steps you should take as a supervisor to prevent abuse in your work center.
Educate and explain policies Deglamorize the use of alcohol Lead by example
Explain how substance abuse impacts productivity.
Decline in productivity due to members being impaired by the substance and effects and distractions resulting from the abuse.
Explain how time in the work center is impacted by substance abuse.
The affected member spends more time away from the work center in order to take care of the problem. Thus making it more difficult in meeting suspense’s.
How do the negative impacts on time and productivity in the work center impact the work center morale?
Others in the work center must do more to attempt to compensate for the person dealing with a substance abuse problem. They must work longer hours and morale begins to decline as workers feel overwhelmed.
Give an example of a potential safety mishap that could result due to substance abuse in your work center.
Provide a personal example focusing on a potential safety mishap that could occur as a result of substance abuse.
Describe the steps you should take as a supervisor to prevent abuse in your work center.
Educate and explain policies Deglamorize the use of alcohol Lead by example
Why is documentation so important to you and the subordinate in the identification phase of a substance abuse problem?
It provides the experts the information needed to help the person deal with the substance abuse problem. It also helps ensure the appropriate punitive measures are carried out.
Describe the supervisor's role during the intervention phase of a substance abuse problem.
Communication with the individual about the observed behaviors leading you to believe there may be a substance abuse problem, proper and timely referral to the proper agency, and direct involvement and genuine concern during the treatment phase.
define ORM
A systematic approach to optimizing risk to support the best mission outcome.
List the principles of ORM
-Accept no unnecessary risk -make risk decisions at the appropriate level -Accept risk when benefits outweigh the cost -Integrate ORM into AF doctrine at all levels
What are some factors to consider in when determining if benefits outweigh the cost?
A comparison of time, money, quality, and perceptions should be made.
What step of ORM deals with prioritizing the control measure?
Step 3 analyze risk control measures
What is the purpose of step 1 of the ORM?
to identify as many hazards in the process as possible
Why is ORM not just a safety program?
Safety is one consideration in the ORM, but it is a continuous process designed to detect and assess risk using safety as one of the many considerations.
Explain the behavior model.
A person feels a need and sets a goal to fulfill that need. A person then acts in a way that will accomplish the goal. The behavior will provide feedback to help the person determine if the goal is being met or not. If the goal is blocked or not being met, a different set of behavior may be carried out in order to continue trying to attain the goal.
How do coping behaviors impact you as a leader?
Understanding coping behavior will better prepare you to deal with the successes and failures of your subordinates.
Explain the role of learning in behavior.
Learning is the process that conditions us to react to a given situation or process a given set of information in a certain way. Learning helps us to gain an understanding of right and wrong and helps us to respond accordingly.
Explain the differences in between Herzberg’s and McClelland's motivational theory
Herzberg's theory asserts that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by different work related factors called hygiene’s. Worker dissatisfaction occurs when these hygiene’s are lacking. McClelland’s theory states that three critical needs, power, affiliation, and achievement may be fulfilled through the organization. The organization can place you in charge of something or someone, social and interpersonal activities satisfy the achievement need, and reaching a goal fills the achievement need.
According to Vroom's Expectancy theory, how does motivation occur?
Motivation occurs because a person assigns meaning or value to what they see or perceive as a realistic outcome based on their behavior. This type of motivation is very strong because the value is often determined by the person who is doing the behavior instead of the person providing the reward.
How do aspirations fit into the behavior process?
Aspirations are a motivational force that play a role in our long term goals and have an interactive relationship with our needs and behavior in reaching that goal. Aspirations help us to learn things and better ourselves in our effort of goal attainment.
Explain the role of personality in the behavior process.
Personality motivates us and impacts how we are typically going to respond to any given situation. Our personality is made up by many traits and, often times, is determined by how others see us.
Define "team" and "group dynamics"
Webster's Dictionary defines team as, "a group organized to work together." Group dynamics is an ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to achieve the desired objective.
How are team goals developed?
Team goals are developed through a group process of team interaction and agreement in which each team member is willing to work toward achieving these goals.
What must a team do to be effective, and how is the effectiveness measured?
Team members must actively participate, provide feedback and partake in the decision making process. Measure effectiveness by observing leadership being shared, conflict addressed, resources maximized and creativity encouraged.
As a supervisor, what techniques would you use to get your subordinates to perceive themselves as team members?
Communicating effectively, conveying work center goals as team goals, and ensuring team members know their roles in and how they contribute to mission accomplishment.
What are task elements?
Task elements are those actions associated with accomplishing the team’s specific task, solving a problem or accomplishing a goal.
List the categories of non-task elements.
Personal identity in the team, Relationships among team members, and Identification within the organization.
What effort is necessary in team building?
The effort in which a team studies its own process of working together and acts to create a climate that encourages and values the contributions of team members.
Name the most important responsibility of a leader and how it is accomplished.
To develop an exciting vision for the team to achieve. The objective will be accomplished through the cooperation of the team members.
Team members must do what in order to accomplish desired results?
Build commitment, trust and support for one another
One important attribute is necessary for long-term goals. What is this attribute?
patience
What conditions must be met for team building to be successful?
High level of interdependence among members; team members working on important tasks must have a commitment; and team work must be a critical aspect to achieve the desired result.
List the stages of team development.
Forming, storming, norming and performing
Which stage is known as the exploration period, and what behaviors are associated with this stage?
Forming stage. Behaviors are being cautious, exploring boundaries, being non-committal, having hidden agendas, having little to no group identity, forming cliques, and feeling a need to be liked.
In which stage is flexibility the key and hierarchy of little importance?
Performing stage
What is the definition of conflict?
disharmony brought about through differing behavior, aims, or methods
Define "team" and "group dynamics"
Webster's Dictionary defines team as, "a group organized to work together." Group dynamics is an ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to achieve the desired objective.
How are team goals developed?
Team goals are developed through a group process of team interaction and agreement in which each team member is willing to work toward achieving these goals.
What must a team do to be effective, and how is the effectiveness measured?
Team members must actively participate, provide feedback and partake in the decision making process. Measure effectiveness by observing leadership being shared, conflict addressed, resources maximized and creativity encouraged.
As a supervisor, what techniques would you use to get your subordinates to perceive themselves as team members?
Communicating effectively, conveying work center goals as team goals, and ensuring team members know their roles in and how they contribute to mission accomplishment.
What are task elements?
Task elements are those actions associated with accomplishing the team’s specific task, solving a problem or accomplishing a goal.
Describe the difference between positive and negative conflict.
During positive conflict, individuals with differing points of view and personalities show mutual respect for each other's thoughts and feelings. Positive conflicts result in positive outcomes. During negative conflict individuals often view others as adversaries. People become very concerned about protecting themselves and attempt to win at all costs.
Explain how managerial behaviors can cause negative conflict in the organization.
Managerial behaviors cause conflict when the leader is not properly using the influence he or she has over others. The failure to make decisions or delegate at the appropriate times slow progress and creates an environment for disagreements and conflict.
Describe the factors to consider before deciding on a conflict management technique.
Who you are dealing with; their traits and position. What is at stake The situation, urgency impacts your decision
Explain how collaboration impacts organizational performance.
It attempts to satisfy both parties. It makes the best use of sides, resources, talents, and ideas. It can result in a win position for both groups and in many cases the organization enjoys a more solid solution or outcome to the problem.
How does the 5-Step approach help to positively manage conflict?
IT REQUIRES THE INDIVIDUALS TO IDENTIFY AND DEFINE THE ROOT CAUSE OF THE CONFLICT. IT AIDS IN GETTING PEOPLE TO FOCUS ON THE REAL ISSUE AND UNCOVER UNDERLYING FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SITUATION.
None
Why is assertiveness effective in overcoming barriers to conflict?
Assertiveness is effective in overcoming barriers because assertive people personify strong self-esteem. They are often risk-takers and even-tempered. They don't allow someone else to control their future. Rather than consistently waiting for others to start resolving conflict their way, an assertive person puts control of the situation into his or her own hands. Assertiveness is not aggression because the individual is acting from differing points of view and aim to resolve the conflict for the betterment of the team rather than himself or herself.
How does cross-training contribute to reducing the potential for conflict in an organization?
By giving people a better understanding and appreciation for other positions and processes in the work center. This understanding helps the person see and accept differing points of view and lends itself to the individual being empathetic when dealing with others.
Describe how conflict management impacts organizational performance.
Conflict management improves efficiency and effectiveness by allowing workers to focus on their job. It fosters an environment of open communication where creative thinking occurs. This creativity and open communication helps in reaching organizational goals and building individual relationships within the work center.
What are the consequences to the organization of not properly managing conflict?
Improper conflict management results in poor organizational performance because communication breaks down, improvement opportunities are lost, and morale decreases. Problems become more serious and more difficult to fix, resulting in time having to be taken from the job and used to resolve the conflict.
Define organizational effectiveness.
Attaining or surpassing of objectives and tasks dealing with mission accomplishment
Describe Interpersonal situational factors
Personal relationships among supervisors and subordinates, supervisors and superiors, and supervisors and other supervisors. The affect and influence leadership under the following conditions:(1) a strong personality encounters a weak personality, (2) someone with ambition deals with another who seems to lack ambition, (3) expectations each for the other, (4) physical stature is unequal , and (5) when an aggressive person interacts with a passive person.
Describe Structure of job or organization situational factors
Some organizations such as fire departments require much more directive styles of leadership. More highly technical or research jobs may require more delegating or empowering.
Describe Time situational factors.
The time an individual has to act can have a major impact on situational leadership. In an emergency situation, the supervisor would likely revert to more directive styles in order to save lives and resources. A supervisor with an urgent mission in a base exercise might be more demanding than someone planning next year's company picnic.
Describe Outside influences as situational factors.
Outside influences include social issues and movements that will affect attitudes of subordinates and supervisors alike, environmental conditions, social unrest and current world conditions.
None
Describe Awareness of self as a situational factor.
Awareness of self involves your leadership inclinations and tendencies? How you prefer to lead subordinates?
Describe directive behavior.
Directing refers to the extent to which a leader engages in one-way communication. The supervisor spells out the follower's role and clearly tells the subordinate what to do, where to do it, how to do it, and when to do it, and closely supervises the subordinates performance. This doesn't mean the supervisor has to be short tempered or have a nasty attitude. Directive behaviors are those a leader will take to accomplish the task. In other words, they are task-oriented behaviors.
Explain Situational Leadership development level D1
Low competence/high commitment: The D1 lacks or has little skill and knowledge to do the task, but is eager to try it anyway. For example, a subordinate diagnosed as a D1 could be compared to an individual who recently arrived at his first duty station. The person has a lot of enthusiasm for entering a new lifestyle and being part of the US military forces, but has none of the job skills necessary to be successful.
Distinguish between the Situational Leadership concepts of competence and commitment.
Competence is the degree of knowledge or skills possessed by the subordinate. It is gained from education, training and/or experience. It should also include any transferable skills the subordinate may have such as abilities develop in other jobs which apply to the particular task at hand. Commitment is a combination of both confidence and motivation. Confidence is a person's self-assurance that leads to the feeling of opinion that, "I can do a task well and without supervision!" Motivation is a person's interest and enthusiasm for doing a task.
Explain Situation Leadership level D2.
SOME competence/low commitment
None
Explain Situation Leadership level D3
High competence/variable commitment
Explain Situational Leadership level D4.
High competence/high commitment
Explain Situational Leadership style: Directing
Manger will exhibit more directive behavior; provide specific instructions, control task accomplishment, make most of the decisions and closely supervise workers. Using the S1 style assumes the leaders/managers/supervisors, solve problems generally by themselves.
Explain Situational Leadership style: Coaching
Manager still decides what the game plan will be and directs task accomplishment, but may consult with subordinates or ask for their ideas. The manager/leader/supervisor will be the one who identifies problems, sets goals and evaluates the work accomplished
Explain Situational Leadership style: Supporting
Increase Supportive Behavior and a decrease in Directive Behavior. The leader/manager/supervisor using this style act toward subordinates with more two-way communication involving subordinates in problem solving, process improvement and decision-making. In addition, using this style involves discussing with the subordinate what needs to be done and allowing the individual to decide how, when, where, ect. To accomplish the job.
Explain Situational Leadership style: Delegating
The Leader/manager/supervisor assigns responsibility to the subordinate and then backs off. Many refer to this as "Empowerment It's not the case that low direction and support means no direction and support
Describe situations in which the directing style is appropriate.
When you have a D1 Emergency situation Short timeline and your follower is a D2 or D3
Describe situations in which the coaching style is appropriate.
Dealing with D2, a person with some competence, but not all the skills Working with D3 who is slipping or regressing because his skills are rusty, his attitude is poor or he's lost sight of the goal.
Describe situations in which the supporting style is appropriate.
When the person has the skills needed to do a task, but is a little insecure or lacks confidence. It could also be used with someone who has the skills relevant to doing the task, but doesn't care.
Describe situation in which the delegating style is appropriate.
With D4-motivated, confident, educated, experienced, self-directing, self-supporting persons- subordinates with high competence and high commitment. Other appropriate situations are with D3s, who have all the skills for the task , when you have long timelines, low stakes and built-in reinforcement
How does the subordinate benefit when Situational Leadership is practiced?
It cultivates overall positive behavior-Subordinates react to their supervisor's behavior. If provided specific goals and proper direction and support, they'll respond positively. Development-taking people through the Situation Leadership development process, you'll develop both their competence and their commitment.
How does the organization benefit when the Situational Leadership model is followed?
Training and development of subordinates will be more organized. Production will be easier to manage because everyone will know the goals, understand what they need to do to reach those goals, and when they reach the D3 and D4 levels, will contribute more effectively and enhance mission accomplishment. Fulfillment of NCO responsibilities is easier making management of work-center more efficient.
What are the two objectives of performance management?
The first objective is to provide appropriate and effective performance feedback. The second objective is to provide a long term record of subordinate performance for use in making personnel management decisions.
Give an example of each objective of performance management.
Conducting the initial, mid-course, or follow-up performance feedback is an example of the first objective. A completed EPR is an example of the second objective.
How does knowing yourself contribute to performance management?
Helps you to deal with your subordinates because you know you are going to respond to likely situations in your work center.
In regards to knowing your people, why is it important to match personal interests with jobs?
It can help in preventing problems such as boredom or complacency, by putting the right people into the right job. Along with interests, special skills or aptitudes should be considered before any job assignment is made.
Explain how supervisors can get to know their subordinates.
Acquire biographical information by communicating with the subordinate and asking about interests, past experiences, previous employment, needs and values and their own expectations of the job and work center.
Explain the limitations of a job description
1. Activity oriented rather than result oriented. 2. Subordinates may see job description as defining the limits of their job often refusing to do anything not listed in the description.
What elements should be addressed in order to write an effective performance standard?
Performance standards need to be specific, observable, and measurable.
Why should you monitor over a period of time long enough to determine your subordinates typical performance?
Determining the subordinate’s typical behavior will give the evaluator a more accurate picture to make decisions on. It also makes it easier to provide effective feedback because the supervisor will know the behavior and performance levels of the subordinate.
How do common evaluation pitfalls impact your evaluations?
Pitfalls bring bias, closed mindedness and logical errors into the actual evaluation. These pitfalls essentially result in an unclear, inaccurate evaluation of the subordinate's performance.
How does preventative feedback help your subordinate?
They help start a new relationship off right. It provides the expectations and standards in which the subordinate will be measured by. This type of feedback sets the subordinate up for success by helping him adjust to his new environment.
Explain how properly conducting the feedback session strengthens organizational effectiveness.
It will let the subordinate know if they are meeting, exceeding, or failing to meet the standards that have been established. The session will also let the subordinate know why it is happening and a plan to continue or modify the behavior will be developed. This gives the subordinate the direction they need in order to be able to fully contribute to organizations processes.
When should you refer your subordinate to other people or agencies for follow-up feedback?
When you determine the problem is too much for you to handle or you do not know enough about the issue to help the subordinate a make a solid informed decision, you should refer the person to the agency best able to help.
What is the difference between performance feedback and counseling?
Performance feedback's main focus is how well the person is doing in regards to assigned tasks and FULFILLING THE ELEMENTS DEFINED IN THE JOB DESCRIPTION. COUNSELING SERVES TO ADDRESS JOB PERFORMANCE AS WELL as items such as personal issues, discipline problems, and career decisions.
None
Explain why the nondirective counseling approach is often the preferred method of counseling.
It puts the responsibility for a solution on the shoulders of the subordinate. This is effective because if conducted properly, this approach usually results into a higher level of open, honest communication. The commitment of the subordinate is greatly increased because the often take pride in ownership of the solution that was developed.
How does effective counseling strengthen organizational effectiveness?
It Provides guidance and direction for the subordinate resulting in them becoming a more well rounded and fully developed member of the Air force. Counseling fosters teamwork and opens the lines of communication necessary for a solid supervisor-subordinate relationship.
Explain how you can improve your subordinate when developing an improvement plan.
By building on their strengths to develop a good foundation of motivation. Building on strengths helps to minimize and eliminate weakness in subordinate.
How does job rotation contribute to the development of the improvement plan?
It is helpful because it prevents complacency and boredom. It also helps you to make full use of your subordinates because they are able to learn about more areas within the work center and their career field.
What are some things to consider as a supervisor to improve the situation while developing an improvement plan?
You should make sure you are not over or under supervising; also you should maintain good situational awareness of the happenings with your subordinates and your work center.
What are the 4 change levels?
Knowledge Attitudinal Behavior Group /Organizational
Explain why organizational change is a challenge for a manager/supervisor.
Changing established mindset in a multitude of people.
Briefly describe each of the change cycles.
There are 2 change cycles- directive and participative. The directive change cycle is from the top down approach, while the participative change works from the bottom up.
Provide an example of when you would implement each of the change cycles.
Military managers would use directive change in most cases. However, participative change should be used whenever possible. In a work section comprising achievement-oriented individuals with a high degree of knowledge, the preferred method would be participative. Depending upon the situation and mix of people in your individual shops, you may have the opportunity to use both.
What are some advantages/disadvantages of each of the changes cycles?
If you choose the wrong change cycle, it can tend to demotivate your subordinates. In highly-motivated, well-educated and task-oriented work section comprising seasoned hard-chargers, directive change may not be the best approach. In like fashion, participative change might never be realized among a work section staffed by one-stripers.
Identify each of the roles in a change process.
Change sponsor Change agent Change target
What are organizational norms? What comprises each?
There are four organizational norms. The technology norm includes computers, test equipment, weapons systems etc.; the task norm includes general procedures, job steps, checklists, etc.; the structure norm includes administrative procedures, evaluation systems, etc.; and people norm includes technical or leadership training, new jobs, etc
What role might the core values play in effecting change?
"Service before self" encourages faith in the system; "Integrity First" encourages responsibility and loyalty; "Excellence In all We do" encourages a quality effort.
What are the stages of the change process?
Unfreezing changing Refreezing
Explain the responsibility an NCO has to each subordinate during the change process.
You have the responsibility to create a positive atmosphere through which each of your subordinates will feel that change is needed and will be supportive of the process. Concurrently, as NCO supervisors, managers and leaders, you must anticipate and deal with any resistance to change. In so doing, you must gain familiarity with and be able to identify each of the following six groups of personalities in your organization, early adopters, early majority, late majority, late adopters, and the diehards. You must realize that people are your single greatest asset, and concentrate your efforts upon those who are willing to "get with the program".
In Step 1 of the six-step problem solving process, how does recognizing the problem contribute to work center effectiveness?
The proper completion of Step 1 is very important because it breaks down the elements of the individual goal, and obstacle, identifies the problem that needs to be solved. By knowing what the problem is, those involved can begin to find a workable, permanent solution. As the problem is solved, work center personnel are able to focus on the job and mission accomplishment rather than the problem.
Why is it important to gather data at the right point during the six-step problem solving process?
Facts are known truths used to make sound decisions. By knowing what the problem is, those involved can begin to find a workable, permanent solution. As the problem is solved, work center personnel are able to focus on the job and mission accomplishment rather than the problem.
In step 3 of the six-step problem solving process, which two techniques are used to generate a list of possible solutions?
Brainstorming is very effective technique used to generate many possible solutions to a problem in a very short period of time. Creative thinking, like brainstorming, promotes freethinking of ideas by changing or recombining old ideas into new possible solutions to problems. These activities provide the problem solvers with material to work with.
How do you know if a possible solution is feasible?
If resources such as time, money, and material are available, a solution may be feasible. You must also ensure you have the authority to implement a solution in order for it to be a feasible proposal.
What should you do if you have more than one feasible and acceptable solution to choose from after performing Step 4?
If you have more than one solution once you reach Step 5, you may want to get input from others to help choose the best solution. You can also consider combining the ideas to find the best solution.
Describe the impact that not following-up on the implementation of solution to a problem (Step 6) would have on a work center.
Not following-up on the implementation of the solution could result in not ever determining if the solution chosen in Step-5 actually worked. It may also result in the loss of opportunities to learn from mistakes made because of poorly chosen solution or a needlessly costly implementation. Follow-up provides the definitive information you are looking for and expect to see.
Explain how your use of the six-step approach to problem solving can impact you as a supervisor.
By properly utilizing the problem solving process, you will be better able to resolve problems with your subordinates. This will result in your credibility being reinforced and open lines of communication between you and your subordinates. Using this process will also give you more experience that will help you to accept and handle increased levels of responsibility.
According to Hersey, Blachard and Johnson what three skills are requisite to leading?
Diagnosing, adapting and communicating
What two key aspects should you focus on when you are Diagnosing an organization?
Status of people and status of environment
What four categories are used by the US Marine Corps to gain a complete picture of the status of its people?
Morale, Esprit de corps, discipline, and proficiency
As a leader, what two areas must you look at when assessing the organizational environment?
Resource availability (human, financial, physical and information) Leadership action (establish direction and priorities, creating policy, making decisions and providing information)
What type of leader exhibits a high task, low relationship style?
The Authoritarian leader exhibits a high task, low relationship style. This type of leader tends to be autocratic and rigid, allowing for little deviation from the schedule.
What type of leader exhibits a low task, low relationship style?
The Team leader exhibits a high task, high relationship style. This type of leader is not afraid to dive right in and usually leads by example.
What type of leader exhibits a low task, low relationship style?
Impoverished leader exhibits a low task, low relationship style. This type of leader is notorious for delegating, then disappearing, leaving subordinates to fend for themselves.
What type of leader exhibits a low task, high relationship style?
The country club leader. This type of leader uses reward power as the motivating force.
What are the two categories of leadership power?
Personal and Position
Name the four types of position power.
Coercive
Connection
Reward
Legitimate
None
What AFI states the NCOs are delegated authority necessary to exercise leadership commensurate with their rank and responsibility?
AFI36-2618 The Enlisted Force Structure
Name the three types of personal power.
Referent power
Expert power
Information power
None
What are the key attributes of a role model?
Integrity, commitment, and mentoring
What term is used to describe a supportive relationship, where a senior member of an organization counsels, coaches, teaches, and provides feedback to junior member? What is the term used to describe the subordinate in this relationship?
Mentoring; protégées
Technical proficiency, as a leadership tenet, is most closely related to which AF Core Value?
"Excellence in all we do" is most closely related to the technical proficiency tenet
When should you understand the capabilities and limitations of your organization?
When developing objectives, creating priorities and assigning tasks.
Into what two categories is planning usually divided?
Strategic and operational
Which planning category will most commonly be used by NCOs’ on a daily basis?
Operational planning, since it will be used most often by NCOs on a day-today basis.
What are the five steps in the planning process?
Analyze the mission; establish goals; identify alternatives; select the best alternative; implement the plan
As an Air Force supervisor, you will manage budgets at different organizational levels and with varying degrees of control. Identify and describe the two areas mentioned in the text.
The Responsibility Center, an organizational department under the direct supervision of a single individual solely responsible for its activities, the Cost Center, the lowest level where supplies are used is usually the flight or work center in an organization.
Describe the purpose of the Unit Personnel Management Roster (UPMR).
Which organizational document lists the people assigned, projected losses and gains, and should accurately reflect the Unit Manning Document (UDM)
What does the Unit Manning Document (UDM) tell you?
This document tells you the number of people authorized, the Air Force Specialty Codes (AFSCs), position numbers and total number assigned to your work center.
What are the primary professional development programs for enlisted people?
PME Courses
Define Organizing as it pertains to the functions of management.
The process of dividing work into manageable sections and coordinating the results to serve a purpose.
What three approaches to job design are discussed in your text?
Job rotation Job enlargement Job enrichment
Briefly describe job rotation
The practice of periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence.
Briefly describe job enrichment
the process of upgrading the job-task mix in order to increase the potential for growth, achievement, responsibility and recognition
Briefly describe job enlargement
The allocation of wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging
What is the main purpose of the controlling function?
Organizational activities are regulated so that the elements of performance remain within acceptable limits
What are the four steps in the controlling process?
Establish standards of performance; measure actual performance; compare performance standards; evaluate performance and take action
How does your text describe the leading function?
Leading involves harnessing our personal and professional traits to influence others to accomplish the mission.
What is effective planning?
In order for planning to be effective, it requires vision and the ability to communicate that vision to other people.
How would you describe effective organizing?
First, an understanding of the organizational structure and second, an ability to convince your people that cross utilization is best for them and the Air Force. In order for controlling to be effective, it requires an understanding of performance standards as they pertain to mission accomplishment and an ability to see what kind of controlling mechanisms are best. There is a balance between over-control and under-control. That balance is based on the dynamic relationship between people, mission, and the situation at hand.
What is a clique? Describe one advantage of a clique within an organization.
The formation of a clique is the direct result of our social instinct to band together in groups. A clique can bind people together by enhancing unit morale. However, a clique can also take on a life of its own and become independent of organization objectives.
WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF THE ENLISTED FORCE STRUCTURE?
DEFINE THE SPECIFIC RESPONSIBILITIES FOR EACH RANK, RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EACH AND HOW EACH RANK FITS INTO THE ORGANIZATION, AND THE CAREER PROGRESSION THROUGH THE ENLISTED RANKS.
HOW DOES THE ENLISTED FORCE STRUCTURE CONTRIBUTE TO DISCIPLINE IN THE AIR FORCE?
LAYS THE FOUNDATION FOR EFFECTIVE DISCIPLINE.
WHAT IS THE SUPERVISOR'S ROLE IN HELPING SUBORDINATES ADJUST TO THE MILITARY ENVIRONMENT?
ENGAGE IN ACTIVITIES THAT LET SUBORDINATES KNOW THE SUPERVISOR CARES ABOUT THEIR WELL BEING AND DEVELOPMENT.
DESCRIBE THE ACTIONS YOU SHOULD TAKE IN PREVENTING DISCIPLINARY PROBLEMS.
COMMUNICATE EXPECTED STANDARDS AND BEHAVIORS TO SUBORDINATES. ENFORCE CONSISTENTLY AND FAIRLY.BE DIRECTLY INVOLVED IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND BE A POSITIVE ROLE MODEL.
WHAT ARE SOME CORRECTIVE MEASURES YOU WOULD UTILIZE IN ORDER TO MAINTAIN DISCIPLINE?
VERBAL OR WRITTEN COUNSELING. LETTERS OF ADMONISHMENT OR REPRIMAND. DOCUMENTATION
DESCRIBE THE PROGRESSIVE DISCIPLINE PROCESS (PDP).
PROCESS OF GAINING AND MAINTAINING DISCIPLINE WITHIN YOUR ORGANIZATION.
HOW WOULD A POOR SELF CONCEPT IN YOUR SUBORDINATE MAKE IT MORE CHALLENGING FOR YOU AS A SUPERVISOR?
PERSON NOT BELIEVING THAT THEY ARE CAPABLE OR IMPORTANT. OFTEN RESULTS IN A SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY OF SORTS.EFFORT TO GET THEM TO SEE THEMSELVES IN A POSITIVE LIGHT, AND CHANGING THEIR BEHAVIOR
EXPLAIN THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SELF EFFICACY AND LOCUS OF CONTROL.
SELF EFFICACY-DEGREE OF CONTROL PEOPLE FEEL THEY HAVE IN A GIVEN SITUATION. LOCUS OF CONTROL-WHETHER PEOPLE FEEL THE OUTCOMES OF THEIR BEHAVIOR ARE TRULY A RESULT OF THEIR ACTION.
DESCRIBE THE ROLE OF VALUES AS A BEHAVIOR INFLUENCE.
WE USE VALUES TO MAKE PASS JUDGMENT AND MAKE DECISIONS. WE USE VALUES TO ASSESS THE ACTION OF OTHERS, DEVELOP POSTITIONS ON ISSUES, AND AVOID CERTAIN TASKS. VALUES ARE THE FOUNDATION OF OUR BEHAVIOR.
LIST THE CATAGORIES OF NON-TASK ELEMENTS.
NON TASK ELEMENTS FALL INTO THREE CATAGORIES: PERSONAL IDENTITY IN THE TEAM, RELATIONSHIPS AMONG TEAM MEMBERS AND IDENTIFICATION WITHING THE ORGANIZATION.
WHAT EFFORT IS NECESSARY IN TEAM BUILDING?
THE EFFORT IN WHICH A TEAM STUDIES ITS OWN PROCESS OF WORKING TOGETHER AND ACTS TO CREATE A CLIMATE THAT ENCOURAGES AND VALUES THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF TEAM MEMBERS.