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80 Cards in this Set

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Name the three ways in which Carbohydrates are classified in 3 main ways.
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
Give another name for monosaccharides.
simple sugars
Give another name for disaccharides.
double sugars
What does the body require in order to function?
a source of energy
Name some functions of carbohydrates.
It acts as an important source of energy and it acts as a 'protein sparer', so that the protein can be used for its primary functions rather than as a a source of energy
What three elements do all types of carbohydrates contain?
carbon
oxygen
hydrogen
What term did oxygen and hydrogen present?
the term 'hydrate'
What are carbohydrates mainly produced by?
by plants
During what process are carbohydrates made?
photosynthesis
What are monosaccharides?
They are the common base units from which all carbohydrates are made. They are sweet and soluble in water
What are the three main monosaccharides?
Glucose
Fructose
Galactose
Give 2 other names for the word 'glucose'.
Dextrose
blood sugar
Explain glucose
It is the form of carbohydrate that the body uses for energy. It is the base unit that all other carbohydrates are converted into glucose during/after digestion. The glucose is then circulated around the blood stream to the body of cells. It absorbs the fastest in the blood stream
What is the function of insulin?
Insulinn controls the amount of sugar in the blood
Where is glucose found?
It is found mainly in ripe fruits, carrot, beetroot, onions, corn syrup, etc., and is also available in liquid, powder, and tablet form.
Who usually takes glucose to get a fast source of energy?
athletes
Give two other names for fructose.
fruit sugar
levulose
Why fructose sometimes called fruit sugar?
Because it is found predominantly in ripe fruits, plant juices and honey
Where is galactose found?
It is found mainly in the milk of mammals, where it forms part of the milk sugar, lactose
What are disaccharides made from?
These are made from 2 monosaccharide units joined together
Give some characteristics of disaccharides.
They are soluble in water and are broken down in the body into simple sugars during digestion.
Name the three main types of disaccharides .
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
What is sucrose formed from?
It is formed from one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose
Where is sucrose most commonly used?
In cookery
How is sucrose obtained?
by refining sugar cane or sugar beet
What is sucrose used for?
It is used to sweeten foods
What form is sucrose found in?
In concentrated form as sugar
Where is sucrose also present?
In some fruits and vegetables
Give another name for lactose.
milk sugar
What is lactose formed from?
From one unit of glucose and one unit of galactose
Who usually takes glucose to get a fast source of energy?
athletes
Give two other names for fructose.
fruit sugar
levulose
Why fructose sometimes called fruit sugar?
Because it is found predominantly in ripe fruits, plant juices and honey
Where is galactose found?
It is found mainly in the milk of mammals, where it forms part of the milk sugar, lactose
What are disaccharides made from?
These are made from 2 monosaccharide units joined together
Give some characteristics of disaccharides.
They are soluble in water and are broken down in the body into simple sugars during digestion.
Name the three main types of disaccharides .
Sucrose
Lactose
Maltose
What is sucrose formed from?
It is formed from one unit of glucose and one unit of fructose
Where is sucrose most commonly used?
In cookery
How is sucrose obtained?
by refining sugar cane or sugar beet
What is sucrose used for?
It is used to sweeten foods
What form is sucrose found in?
In concentrated form as sugar
Where is sucrose also present?
In some fruits and vegetables
Give another name for lactose.
milk sugar
What is lactose formed from?
From one unit of glucose and one unit of galactose
Where is lactose found?
It is found in the milk of mammals
Why is lactose found in the milk of mammals?
To supply the infant with a source of energy
Give 1 other characteristic of lactose.
It is not as sweet as other sugars.(sucrose)
Give another name for maltose.
Malt sugar
What is maltose formed from?
Maltose is formed from two units of glucose
Where is maltose found?
It is found in cereals such as barley, malted products and beer
What happens to maltose found in cereals?
It is formed there during germination
During digestion, what are disaccharides broken down to before being absorbed into the bloodstream?
to glucose and other monosaccharides
What are sugars also classified as?
Intrinsic sugars
Extrinsic sugars:-
non-milk extrinsic sugars
milk sugars
What are intrinsic sugars?
those that form part of the cell structure of the plants, e.g. in fruit
What are extrinsic sugars?
Those that are not part of the cell structure of plants
What do exrinsic sugars include?
non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) and milk sugars
Give examples of NMES.
refined sugar, extracted sugars in honey and fruit juice, sugars added to foods
Give examples of milk sugars
mostly lactose, found naturally in milk and milk products
What are Polysachharides otherwise known as?
complex starches
What are polysachharides made from?
from varying numbers of monosaccharide units
Give some other charasteristic of polysaccharides.
They are usually insoluble in cold water and are tasteless. They vary in thickness
What are the main polysachharides?
Starch
Dextrin
Cellulose
Pectin
Glycogen
What is starch formed from?
From many glucose units joined together like links in a chain
How is cellulose formed?
It is formed by plants from glucose units joined together in such a way that a strong, structural material is produced.
What do the plants use the material for?
for support in stems, leaves, husks of seeds, and bark
Where is cellulose mainly found?
It is found in virtually all foods of plant origin
Give a characteristic of cellulose having to do with the human body.
It cannot be digested by humans, but is of great value to the body as dietary fibre, NSP
What is starch formed in photosynthesis as?
as a chief food reserve, in particular in root vegetables, cereals, and pulses
What happens during digestion to glucose units that make up starch?
they break down into smaller chains, then into disacccharides, and finally into single glucose units, which are absorbed into the blood.
When is dextrin formed?
It is formed when food containing starch, e.g bread, are baked or toasted
Give other characteristics of dextrin
It is more soluble than starch and it forms part of the crust on foods contaning starch like bread etc.
What is pectin?
Pectin is a complex polysaccharide formed by some plants, e.g. plums, apples, in their fruits and roots
Give some other characteristics of pectin.
It forms gels in water and is responsible for setting jam. It can be commercially extracted for this purpose
When is glycogen formed and in what?
It is formed after digestion in humans and other animals
What is done to some of the glucose to ensure that the body has a reserve of enrgy that can be quickly used?
It is converted into glycogen for temporary storage in the liver and muscles
When will the glycogen convert into glucose?
When energy is required for the body
What do NSP's include?
cellulose, pectin and gums such as carrageenan, gum arabic, and locust bean gum
What do NSP's make up?
They make up dietary fibre
Give other characeristics of NSP's.
they are not digested by micro-organisms in the large intestine, and are very important in removing waste from the digestive system