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97 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speech skills are necessary for social beings
social imperative (3)
Speech skills are necessary for engaging in reflective complaining and compliments
consumer imperative (4)
Speech skills are necessary for studying ethics, practical pholosophy, and the eloquant expression of the human spirit
intellectual imperative (4)
direct, in person, spoken connections between people
orality (6)
a trabsaction among people in public, rather than interpersonal settings
interactive process (7)
source of the message
speaker (8)
factual content of the speecha nd the speaker's attitudes and values on the topic
message (8)
someone who recieves and interprets the message
listener (8)
messages your listeners send to you before, during, and after your speech
feedback (8)
the social expectations and cultural rules that come into play when speakers and listeners interact
context (8)
the consideration of how you are looking, ethically, to you audience
ethos (9)
credibility or reputation
ethics (9)
Finding a higher value or appeal that will transcend the differences of your audience
skyhook principle (10)
the primary reason you will speak in public
general purpose (20)
the concrete goals you wish to achieve in a particular speech
specific purpose (2)
the statement that caputes the essence of the information or concept you wish to communicate to an audience
central idea
putting yourself in your listeners shoes
audience orientation (24)
anxienty you feel in particular settings or situations
state aprehension (30)
level of anxiety as you face any communication situation
trait aprehension (30)
drawing together ideas or stereotypes held by a group, attatching them to people or events
(Speech tends to be...)
interogative (52)
repeating yourself in speaking, saying things on more than one way

(Speech tends to be...)
redundant (52)
a group's traditional beliefs and values reflected in public oral language
("Better safe than sorry")
(Speech tends to be...)
traditionalist (52)
being specific and to the point



(Speech tends to be...)
concrete (52)
suggestion that when people gather to make decisions publically by speech, things get a little heated
(Speech tends to be...)
agonistically toned (53)
the audience's personal involvment


(Speech tends to be...)
participatory (53)
Dealing with issues in the here and now


(Speech tends to be...)
situational (53)
cultures that coexist in a society as relatively complete ways of life
(a.k.a women and men)
co-cultures (54)
smaller groups of people that define their lifestlyes at least in part by how they're different from the dominant culture
subcultures (54)
the recognition that a given country does not posess a unified culture
Multiculturalism (54)
habitual ways of thinking about positive and negative grounds for human thought and action
value orientations (57)
the variety of conceptial borders that can be put on a factually equivalent message
rhetorical framing (61)
the study of observable characteristics in a group of people
demographic analysis (72)
identifying what your listeners already thing and feel
psychological profiling (75)
convictions about what is true or false
beliefs (76)
tendencies to respond positively or negatively to people, objects, or ideas
attitudes (77)
basic concepts organazing one's orientation to life
values (78)
dividing your listeners into a series of subgroups or "target populations."
audience segmentation (84)
perception that all individuals in a group are the same
stereotypes (87)
firsthand accounts
primary sources (92)
accounts based on other sources of information other than firsthand
secondary sources (92)
searches in which you use such words as "and" or" or "not" to control the subject matter
Boolean searches (94)
way of obtaining answers to specific questions
informational interview (99)
made up examples
hypothetical examples (102)
recitations of events taht actually happened or people, places, and things that actually exist
factual examples (102)
numbers that show relationship between or among phenomena
statistics (103)
statistics that descripe a situation's seriousness
Magnitudes (103)
statistics used to isolate part of the problem caused by seperate factors, parts, or aspects
segments (104)
indicatiors that tell us about the past, the present, and the future
trends (104)
citiation of opinions or conclusion about others
testimony (106)
the unacknowledged inclusion of someone else's words, ideas, or data as ones own.
plagiarism (107)
order or sequence of ideas in a pattern that suggest thier relationship to each other
organization (117)
arranged ideas in a time sequence
Chronological patterns (118)
when the major points of the speech are organized by their position
spatial patterns (118)
speech organization that shows a relationship between cause and effects
causal patterns (119)
speech organization that lists aspects of persons, places, things, or processes
topical patterns (12)
beginning with what the auidience knows or believes and moving on to new or challenging ideas
Familiarity-acceptance order (121)
a step by step explanation of how you aqcquired information or reached a conclusion
inquiry order (121)
Speech organization used when advocating a change in action or thought
problem-solution order (122)
speech order that first surveys all the avaliable solutions and then systematically eliminates them until only one remains
elimination order (122)
outline that establishes the topic of your speech, clariefes your purpose, and identifies a reasonable number of subtopics
rough outline (124)
outline that uses key words or phtrases to jog your memory when you deliver your speech
speaking outline (126)
collection of facts and figures
information (220)
information that has been given human significance
knowledge (220)
defining concepts or processes in ways that make them relavent to listeners
explanations (221)
explanations that usually involve more elaboration and definitions to increase an audience's understanding of a particular field of knowledge
lectures (221)
the explanation and illustration of certain processes
demonstrations (222)
speech that arranges and interprets info gathered in response to a request made by a group
oral report (222)
the world of your own thoughts
internal perceptual field (36)
things in your physical environment that can distract you
external perceptual field (37)
5 types of listening
Appreciative - focus on somthing other than primary message

Discriminative - drawing conclusions from way message is presented instead of whats being said

Empathic listening - providing emotional support for speaker

Listening for comprension - looking to gain further insight

Critical Listening - interpreting and evaluating the message
RRA technique
review, relate, and anticipate (41)
concious examination of content and logic of a message
critical thinking (45)
what the listeners have heard first
primacy effect
what the listener heard last
recency effect
the factors of attention
activity, reality, proximity, familiarity, novelty, suspense, conflict, humor, the vital.
puting ideas into words or actions
encoding (156)
linking phrases that move an audience from 1 idea to another
sighposts
designation of using a word in a certain context
stipulative definition (165)
how you are not going to use an answer
negative definition (165)
giving the definition of a given word
etymological definition (166)
familiar examples
Exemplar definitions (166)
how a word is used in a specific situation
contextual definition (166)
comparing an unknown event with a known one
analogical definition (167)
types of speeches
extemporaneous, impromptu, manuscript, and memorized.
effective speaking voice:
intelligibility, volume, rate, enunciation, dialect

variety, pitch, stress, empahsis
the use of space between human beings
proxemics (185)
nonverbal communication:
posture, movement, affect displays (emotion on face), gestures
cultural expectations for verbal communication
scopic regime (198)
visual aids;
props,photos or slides, films,chalkboard, overhead,graphs (line, pie, bar), pictographs,tables, charts (flip, flow), models
informative speeches
explanation, lecture, demontration, oral report,
geography sensitive lifestyle segmentation
PRISM (243)
impulse to satisfy a psychological-social want or biological urge
motive need (248)
visualization of a desire and a method for satisfiying it
motivational appeal
group of individual appeals grounded in same motivation
motive cluster
desire to belong to a group or to be accepted
Affiliative motives (249)
related to intrinsic or extrinsic desire for success
achievment motives
the desire to exert influences over others
power motives