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154 Cards in this Set

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The ability to form and defend your own judgements rather than blindly accepting or instantly rejecting what you hear or read
Critical Thinking
Statements that can be verified by someone other than the speaker
Facts
Subjective judgements based on experience or expertise, not capable of being verified by someone else
Opinions
The process of identifying your goals and then determining how best to achieve them
Strategic Planning
Interaction that builds connection between people that helps them to understand each other and recognize common interests
Communication
The particular context in which a speech takes place
Situation
The study of how messages affect people
Rhetoric
A situation in which people's understanding can be changed through messages
Rhetorical Situation
The people who assemble to listen to a speech
Audience
Formation of common bonds between a speaker and the audience
Identification
The specific setting for the speech; the context in which it takes place
Occasion
A problem that cannot be avoided but that can be solved, or at least managed through the development of an appropriate message
Exigence
Intended to give listeners new information and to influence their thought and action
Deliberative
The goal of the speech, the response sought from the listeners
Purpose
The main idea of the speech, usually stated in one or two sentences
Thesis
The speaker's character as perceived by the audience
Ethos
The beginning of the speech, designed to get the audience's attention, to state the thesis, and to preview the development of the speech
Introduction
The substance and structure of a speech's ideas
Logos
The speaker's evoking of appropriate emotion from the audience
Pathos
The largest portion of the speech; includes the development of supporting materials to prove the thesis and any subsidiary claims
Body
All forms of evidence that lend weight to the truth of a claim
Supporting Materials
The ending of the speech; draws together the main ideas and provides a note of finality
Conclusion
A speech in which only one main idea (the thesis) is offered and established
One-point speech
A mode of presentation in which the main ideas and structure have been worked out in advance but specific wording has not been developed
Extemporaneous
An outline used in developing a speech; main ideas and supporting material are usually set forth in complete sentences
Preparation Outline
An outline used while presenting a speech; typically consists only of key words written on an index card
Presentation Outline
Providing listeners with new information or ideas
Informing
Influencing listeners' attitudes and behavior
Persuading
Stimulating a sense of community through the celebration of common bonds among speaker and listeners
Entertaining
Using another person's words as if they were your own
Plagiarism
A sensory process in which sound waves are transmitted to the brain and someone becomes conscious of sound
Hearing
A mental operation involving processing sound waves, interpreting their meaning, and storing their meaning in memory
Hearing
Verbal and nonverbal audience response to a speech; usually taken seriously by a speaker and incorporated into the speech when possible
Feedback
The length of time a person will attend to a message without feeling distracted
Attention Span
The tendency to regard two similar messages as basically indentical, blurring the distinction between them
Assimilation
Diagramming the relationship between the thesis of a speech and its main ideas
Mapping
Listening that enables you to offer both an accurate rendering of the speech and an interpretation and assessment of it
Critical Listening
Unstated, taken-for-granted, beliefs in a particular situation
Assumptions
Considered, thoughtful (as opposed to automatic)
Reflective
Judgments that can be articulated and defended by providing the reasons for them
Critical Judgments
Evaluation of a speech according to the effects it produced
Effectiveness Standard
Evaluation of a speech according to its ethical execution of principles of public speaking without regard to its actual effects
Artistic Standard
The analytical assessment of messages that are intended to affect other people
Rhetorical Criticism
By checking _______________ you will consider how your speech should respond to certain characteristics of the audience as a whole - such as its size, age range, and educational level
Audience Demographics
By respecting _______________, you will become aware of how listeners approach your speech in terms of their interests, beliefs and values, prior understanding, and common knowledge
Audience Cultures
By understanding _____________, you will realize that listeners are selective about what they attend to and perceive
Audience Psychology
The characteristics of the audience as a whole (i.e. size, heterogeneity, status as captive or voluntary, and composition)
Demographics
Variety or diversity among audience members; dissimilarity
Heterogeneity
Buzzwords or phrases that are devoid of specific content
Platitudes
Assuming that all members of a demographic category are alike in all respects
Stereotyping
Subjective factors that characterize a particular audience and make its situation distinct
Audience Culture
Personal gain or loss resulting from an action or policy
Self-interest
What an individual regards as interesting or important
Personal Interests
Statements that listeners regard as true
Beliefs
Positive or negative judgements that listeners apply to a person, place, object, event or idea
Values
Talking down to an audience; assuming that listeners are not capable of thinking about a subject and reaching their own conclusions
Condescending
Facts that are commonly known among the members of a culture; common knowledge
Cultural Facts
Brief references to something with which the audience is assumed to be familiar
Allusions
Socially assigned positions such as "parent," "student," "employee," and "citizen"
Roles
Groups with which listeners identify, regardless of whether they belong to them. Serve as guides or models of behavior
Reference Groups
When people regard their values of their specific culture to be universal
Egocentrism
A tendency to expose oneself to messages that are important personally and that are consistant with what one already believes
Selective Exposure
Conscious or unconscious choice about whether or not to focus intently on a speech, absorb and process its contents, and take it seriously
Selective Attention
The interpretation or understanding given to a speech; the meaning it has for a listener
Perception
Listeners who share the characteristics of people in general
General Public
Subject-matter areas with distinct norms or assumptions
Fields
An imaginary audience made up of all resonable people
Universal Audience
Saying whatever will please an audience even if it is not what the speaker really believes
Pandering
The generation of materials for a speech
Invention
The structuring of materials within the main ideas, the organization of main ideas within the body of the speech, and the overall structure of introduction, body, and conclusion
Arrangement
The distinctive character that may make a speech recognizable or memorable
Style
The presentation of the speech to an audience
Delivery
Mental recall of the key ideas and the basic structure of the speech
Memory
A mode of delivery in which the speaker reads aloud the prepared text of the speech
Manuscript Presentation
The subject area of the speech
Topic
A plan of action to achieve stated goals
Strategy
Formation of common bonds between the speaker and the audience
Identification
Speaking that focuses on the present and is usually concerned with praise
Ceremonial
Speaking that focuses on the future and is usually concerned with what should be done
Deliberative
Speaking that focuses on the past and is usually concerned with rendering judgment
Forensic
A mental free-associatiopn exercise in which one identifies, without evaluation, the first thoughts that come to mind when one is presented with a given term or category
Brainstorming
Meaning "common places" or "common topics", common or typical categories for organizing subject matter
Topoi
An identification of the objectives to be sought in a speech and the means for achieving them
Strategic Plan
The outcome the speaker wishes to achieve; the response desired from the audience
Purpose
The point of view from which one approaches a topic
Perspective
Causing listeners to be aware of and to think about a topic that previously had escaped their attention
Agenda Setting
The replacement of one set of beliefs by another that is inconsistent with the first
Conversion
Statement of the overall goal of the speech; providing new information or perspective, agenda setting, creating positive or negative feeling, strenghtening commitment, weakening commitment, conversoin, or inducing a specific action
General Purpose Statement
Statement of the particular outcome sought from the audience; a more specific version of a general purpose
Specific Purpose Statement
A question raised by the thesis statement that must be addressed in order for the thesis itself to be addressed effectively
Issue
The process of looking for and discovering supporting materials for the speech
Research
Exploration of a speech topic to determine which subordinate topics must be covered
Analysis
When we know something to be true on the basis of broad social consensus
Social Knowledge
The following statement is an example of a ___________.

"If you want something done right, do it yourself."
Maxim
Sometimes common knowledge takes the form of ____________________. For example, whether correctly or not, most Americans believe that large government programs don't work, that taxes are too high, etc.
Generally Held Beliefs
Common knowledge is also expressed in ______________, such as the importance of protecting the environment, and the commitment to a right to privacy.
Value Judgements
The beliefs and values that members of a society or culture generally share
Common Knowledge
The assumption that a statement or claim is true until shown otherwise
Presumption
Primary sources that can establish a claim directly, without opinion or speculation
Documents
Numbers recording the extent of something or the frequency with which it occurs
Statistics
Information or an opinion expressed by someone other than the speaker, cited to support some claim
Testimony
A question with a finite number of choices from which the respondant must pick
Closed Question
A question that does not restrict the range of possible responses
Open-Ended Question
A question that explores the implications of a previous response
Follow-Up Question
A file of clippings, quotations, ideas, and other gleanings on a variety of subjets that may be used as supporting materials
Speech Material File
Proof established through interaction between the speaker and the listeners; provides support for a conclusion but no assurance that it is true
Rhetorical Proof
Would be inferred by most people when exercising their critical judgment
Reasonable
Any idea in the speech - whether a main point or a subordinate point - can be regarded as a ____________.
Unit of Proof
A statement that a speaker asks listeners to accept and that the speaker tries to prove
Claim
A mental leap from the supporting materal to the claim
Inference
Specific instances used to illustrate a more general claim
Examples
Typical of the larger category from which a case is selected
Representative
An inference that appears to be sound but that, on inspection, contains a significant flaw
Fallacy
Assuming that what is true of the part is automatically true of the whole
Fallacy of Composition
Assuming that what is true of the whole is automatically true of the part
Fallacy of Division
A comparison of people, places, things, events, or more abstract relationships
Analogy
A direct comparison of objects, people, or events
Literal Analogy
A comparison of the relationships between objects, people, or events
Figurative Analogy
Something that stands for something else
Sign
Regarding something that can be observed as a sign of something that cannot
Physical Observation (as a sign)
A statistical measure that is taken as a sign of an abstraction
Statistical Index (as a sign)
A sign relationship that results from norm or social convention
Institutional Regularity (as a sign)
A pattern of inference that suggests that one factor brings about another
Causal Inference
What are the four types of Inference from Cause?
Prediction, Assignment of Responsibility, Explanation, and Steps to a Goal
What does post hoc mean?
After this
Assuming that one thing causes another when in fact a third factor really is the cause of both
Common Cause Fallacy
Assuming that, because one event occured before another, the first is necessarily the cause of the second
Post Hoc Fallacy
Testimony from a person who is not an expert
Lay Testimony
To offer judgements without providing any basis for them
Pontificate
The quality of striking a responsive chord with listeners, causing them to identify with what one is saying
Resonance
A claim that, on its face, is unrelated to the supporting material
Non Sequitor
Only restating the claim in slightly different words, rather than supporting the claim
Circular Argument
Making an inference that diverts attention from the issue at hand
Ignoring the Question
Having multiple meanings
Equivocal
The selection of ideas and materials and their arrangement into a discernible and effective pattern
Organization
Claims that address the issues in the thesis statment; the primary divisions of the speech
Main Ideas
Structure in which phrases are of similar syntax and length
Parallel Structure
Clear relationships among ideas and topics so that the speech appears to hang together as a natural whole
Coherence
Cannot stand on its own but requires that some other claim or statement be true
Logically Dependant Idea
Does not require the truth of any other claim or statement as a condition for its own truth
Logically Independant Idea
A tendency for what is presented first to be best remembered
Primacy Effect
A tendency for what is presented last to be best remembered
Recency Effect
Ideas that are components of or support for the main ideas in the speech
Subheadings
Division of the body of the speech among selected categories for discussion
Partition
A question for which no answer is expected but which encourages listeners to think
Rhetorical Question
Condensed restatement of the princial ideas just discussed
Summary
A connection, or bridge, between the main elements of the speech and between the main ideas within the body of the speech
Transition
A preview within the body of the speech, leading into one of the main ideas
Internal Preview
A summary within the body of the speech, drawing together one of the main ideas
Internal Summary
Using verbal cues to indicate to an audience where you are in the structure of the speech
Signposting
Designating the supporting materials for a main idea with the subordinate symbol and indentation system in an outline
Subordination
Designating all ideas that are on the same level of importance with the same symbol series and level of indentation in an outline
Coordination
A notion that encompasses a multitude of ideas, abstract, but not tangible. But also agreed that it is "good"
Ideagraph
List the five major headings (in order) of a speaker's choices and activities
Invention, Arrangement, Style, Delivery, Memory