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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Describe the bureaucratic model as one of the two major categories of organizational structures
• Bureaucratic model has several characteristics:
a) A hierarchy of roles or positions through which each person is chosen because of his/her ability.
b) A system of rules of which everyone is aware and generally accepts.
c) Impersonality which treats everyone fairly and alike
d) Specialization which permits everyone’s talent and ability to be used
Bureaucracies often do not operate in the fashion they were intended.
What is the Bureaucratic model?
a. Bureaucratic model—developed by Max Weber—compared to machine
i. Division of Labor—tasks divided into highly specialized jobs
ii. A hierarchy of roles or positions through which each person is chosen because of his/her ability
iii. A system of rules of which everyone is aware and generally accepts
iv. Impersonality which treats everyone fairly and alike
v. Specialization which permits everyone’s talent and ability to be used
Bureaucracies often do not operate in the fashion they were intended.
What theory is associated with the bureaucratic model
Theory X style of leadership
When mankind and its organizations are treated as machines, one can only expect them to function as mindless machines, which sooner or later will fail. In addition, machines lack the ability to fix themselves
Describe the Participatory model.
b. Participatory model—extension of the bureaucratic model—modifies rigidity & impersonality aspects into flexibility & concern for employees—democratic administration
What are the components of the Participatory model
i. Stresses the importance of employee moral & job satisfaction
ii. Organization is structured to fulfill employees needs which results in higher productivity
iii. Organizational structure is designed to increase employee motivation
iv. Shared decision making
v. All employees share in decisions or elect representatives to participate for them
vi. Negatives can be the length of time it takes to come to a decision, and sometimes decisions are so watered down they may be of little value
What theory is associated with the participatory model?
Theory Y style of leadership
When workers participated in how those decisions would be implemented and in how the decisions affected their lives, morale went up, absenteeism and turnover declined, and workers were less resistant to the change. They did not care about the change but rather about how the change affected them. Thus administrators interpreted that everyone must “own a piece of the decision”
Argyris—immaturity/maturity continuum—people are confined to immaturity because bureaucratic treats them as such; participatory encourages personality development toward maturity.
What is the participatory model?
• Participatory model
a) Shared decision making
b) All employees share in decisions or elect representatives to participate for them
c) Negatives can be the length of time it takes to come to a decision, and sometimes decisions are so watered down they may be of little value.
What is system theory?
A system is defined as an organization or organism that exchanges interactions within its specified boundaries more often that it does across it boundaries.
The more open the system, the more often it exchanges across boundaries with other system.
The more closed the system, the less frequently it exchanges across boundaries.
A totally closed system does not exchange interactions and will progress toward entropy or death.
What was bureaucracie founded on by Max Weber?
Max Weber (1864-1920), known as the Father of Modern Sociology, analyzed bureaucracy as the most logical and rational structure for large organziations. Bureaucracies are founded on legal or rational authority which is based on law, procedures, rules, and so on. Positional authority of a superior over a subordinate stems from legal authority. Charismatic authority stems from the personal qualities of an individual. Efficiency in bureaucracies comes from: (1.) clearly defined and specialized functions (2.) use of legal authority(3.) hierarchical form(4.) written rules and procedures; (5.) technically trained bureaucrats (6.) appointment to positions based on technical expertise(7.) promotions based on competence (8.) clearly defined career paths.
What is system theory?
A system as a whole works differently than the parts of the system. The parts alone cannot do what the system can.
When did the system approach begin?
During the 1940s and World War II, systems analysis emerged. This viewpoint uses systems concepts and quantitative approaches from mathematics, statistics, engineering, and other related fields to solve problems. Managers find optimal solutions to management problems by using scientific analysis which is closely associated with the systems approach to management. A system is an interrelated and interdependent set of elements functioning as a whole. It is an open system that interacts with its environment. It is composed of inputs from the environment (material or human resources), transformation processes of inputs to finished goods (technological and managerial processes), outputs of those finished goods into the environment (products or services), and feedback (reactions from the environment). Subsystems are systems within a broader system. Interdependent subsystems (such as production, finance, and human resources) work toward synergy in an attempt to accomplish an organizational goal that could not otherwise be accomplished by a single subsystem. Systems develop synergy. This is a condition in which the combined and coordinated actions of the parts of a system achieve more than all the parts could have achieved acting independently. Entropy is the process that leads to decline.
What is contingency view?
In the mid-1960s, the contingency view of management or situational approach emerged. This view emphasizes the fit between organization processes and the characteristics of the situation. It calls for fitting the structure of the organization to various possible or chance events. It questions the use of universal management practices and advocates using traditional, behavioral, and systems viewpoints independently or in combination to deal with various circumstances. The contingency approach assumes that managerial behavior is dependent on a wide variety of elements. Thus, it provides a framework for integrating the knowledge of management thought.
What is leadership?
Leadership means influencing others to work willingly toward achieving objectives. What makes leadership a challenging concept is understanding a variety of theories and translating them into skills through application and practice. Managing means planning, leading, organizing, and controlling the work of others so the company’s aims are achieved. But without influence and inspiration, planning and organizing will be futile. On the other hand, no matter how inspirational a person may be, management skills are essential.
What types of traits do leaders have?
To be a leader, a manager must have the personality traits to do the job. Leaders have drive. They are action-oriented with a high desire for leadership and achievement. They get satisfaction from completing challenging tasks and attaining excellence.
If people cannot trust their leader, they will not follow; so honesty and integrity are important.
Self-confidence plays an important role in decision-making and gaining the trust of others. A leader must pick the right direction and then put into place the mechanisms required to get there.
Leaders have business acumen--that is, they are extremely knowledgeable about their company and industry. As a result, they make informed decisions and understand the implications of those decisions.
A leader must provide a direction that his or her followers can work toward. Sometimes a vision is required--a general statement of the organization’s intended direction that evokes positive emotional feelings in its members.
What types of traits do leaders have?
1. Intelligence,
2. judgment,
3. aggressiveness,
4.desire to excel,,
6.verbal facility,
What is leadership?
b) According to Warren Bennis, leadership is hard to define, but one knows it when one sees it. Leadership tends to be situational, not all leadership strategies work for all people. The skills to link leadership traits with the situation and display patience, kindness, vision, and clear communication lead to a purposive and not accidental leadership.The roles of leader and manager converge in setting a direction with a vision, mission, or goal. Planning is the first management function, but by providing direction, a manager becomes a leader.
Explain a model developed for decision making?
Rational Model--view as a process that begins with a problem or need the administrator logically addresses by engaging in a series of sequential steps – aka normative prescriptive. Assumes that administrators function in a closed system, a bureaucracy with rigid adherence to written rules and regulations and formal hierarchy. Advantages: specify what should be done in terms o goals, objectives, criteria and outcomes. Disadvantages: may not take enough time to understand the problem and end up with an action that has little relationship to the original situation.
What is the • Shared Decision Making?
participatory, shared or site-based decision making is built on the assumption of choice.
What is the classical model for decision making?
decisions are based on complete rationality, look at all alternatives & consequences, and then decide. Assumes decision maker has perfect knowledge and uses problem-solving format
List the components of rational or classical model
i. Id’s problem
ii. Look at all alternatives
iii. Evaluate alternatives
iv. Chose an alternative
v. Implement decision
vi. Evaluate results of decision
What are some advantages and disadvantages of the rational/classical model?
Advantages: specify what should be done in terms of goals, objectives, criteria and outcomes. Disadvantage: may not take enough time to understand the problem and end up with an action that has little relationship to the original situation
What is Strategic Decision Making?
views decision choices as taking place in an environment made up of multiple interest groups, conflict, negotiation, limited resources, position authority, and informal power. Assumption is that choices the administrator makes are based on comprehensive knowledge and analysis of the internal and external environment.
What is Differentiated or Situational Decision Making:
Just what it says. The administrator chooses the decision entry point or solution based on the problem itself.
How is leadershiped influenced?
is influenced to no small degree by the culture of the school because of the beliefs present. Actions of teachers, students, and the principal are somewhat governed by the expectations for the goals of the school. The actions of leaders are also impacted by the needs of the participants and the roles being carried out.
How is powered when viewed with leadership in education?
Power represents the “capacity or potential for effecting desired results.” Administrators are said to possess legitimate power if they can get people to do what they want them to do, even when people resist.
Power is also viewed as the ability to predict the consequences of one’s actions in complex situations as well as the ability to maintain individual control over one’s emotions and behaviors.
Name two main concepts of leadership?
1. Relationship between 2 or more people in which power & influence are unevenly distributed
2. Leaders must have followers
List each of the five sources of influence (power).
1. Legitimate
2. Reward
3. Coercive
4. Expert
What sources of influence (Power) are based on job position?
1. Legitimate-based on chain of command, works initially but creates dissatisfaction, resistance, and frustration
2. Reward-based on ability to reward subordinates, short term success
3. Coercive--opposite of reward power, creates lowest level of satisfaction
What sources of influence (Power) are based on personal qualities?
1. Expert--based on special ability/knowledge, creates the highest level of satisfaction
2. Referent--charisma, ability to develop followers based upon personality
How can leadership studies be classified?
Leadership studies can be classified as trait, behavioral, contingency, and transformational. Earliest theories assumed that the primary source of leadership effectiveness lay in the personal traits of the leaders themselves. Yet, traits alone cannot explain leadership effectiveness. Thus, later research focused on what the leader actually did when dealing with employees. These behavioral theories of leadership sought to explain the relationship between what the leader did and how the employees reacted, both emotionally and behaviorally. Yet, behavior can't always account for leadership in different situations. Thus, contingency theories of leadership studied leadership style in different environments. Transactional leaders, such as those identified in contingency theories, clarify role and task requirements for employees. Yet, contingency can't account for the inspiration and innovation that leaders need to compete in today's global marketplace. Newer transformational leadership studies have shown that leaders, who are charismatic and visionary, can inspire followers to transcend their own self-interest for the good of the organization.
Explain Legitimate power and give example
iii. Legitimate Power: Can be power that is granted to a position by “higher ups”, can result from tradition, and can also be granted out of respect for the person. The successful use of administrative power depends on the willingness of subordinates to comply.
Explain Reward power and give example
: the capacity to provide rewards such as higher salary or better assignment. The strength of reward power is based on the perception the other person has about magnitude of the rewards available to the administrator. Unsuccessful attempts by the admin to exert reward power tends to decrease the perceived strengths of that power in the future.
Explain Coercive Power and give example
Capacity to provide punishment or negative consequences, such as dismissal. The strength of coercive power is based on the other person’s perceptions of the magnitude of the admin’s power. Strength of coercive power is depends on the actual sanctions or costs the admin can apply. Unsuccessful attempts will decrease the perceived strength of coercive power.
Explain Expert Power and give example
Special knowledge or skill, for example supervision, scheduling, or group dynamics. Strength of the expert power of the admin will vary with the actual knowledge the admin has. The stronger the perception by others that the admin possess expert power, the higher the group’s satisfaction with the admin.
Explain Referent power and give example.
The tendency of other individuals to be attracted by and to identify closely with the admin, i.e. the identification of teachers to principal. The greater the perceived attractiveness of the administrator by another person or group, the more likely there will be identification with the administrator. The stronger the actual identification, the greater the ability of the administrator to use that power.
List some traits of leaders.
1. Adaptable
2. Alert to environment
3. Ambitious & Achievement
4. Assertive
5. Cooperative
5. Decisive
6. Dependable
7. Dominant
8. Energetic
List some skills of a good leader
1. Intelligence
2. concept Skilled
3. Creative
4. Diplomatic & Tactful
5. Fluent in speaking
6. Knowledgeable
7. Organized
8. Persuasive
9. Social Skilled
What is Total Quality Mangement
• Total Quality Management Control quality of materials, effect pride and ownership in the quality of total production by workers, quality circles, worker input, break down department barriers.
 The key elements of TQM are EIT TTL RC
• Ethics,
• Integrity,
• Trust,
• Training,
• Teamwork,
• Leadership,
• Recognition, and
• Communication.
Describe Theory X
Theory X is the traditional view of direction and control by managers.
1. The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid if he or she can.
2. Because of this human characteristic of dislike of work, most people must be controlled, directed, and threatened with punishment to get them to put forth adequate effort toward the achievement of organizational objectives.
3. The average human being prefers to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has relatively little ambition, wants security above all.
Describe Theory Y
Theory Y is the view that individual and organizational goals can be integrated.
1. The expenditures of physical and mental effort in work are as natural as play or rest.
2. External control and the threat of punishment are not the only means for bringing out effort toward organizational objectives.
3. Commitment to objectives is a function of the rewards associated with their achievement.
4. The average human being learns, under proper conditions, not only to accept but also to seek responsibility.
5. The capacity to exercise a relatively high degree of imagination, ingenuity, and creativity in the solution of organizational problems in widely, not narrowly, distributed in the population.
6. Under the condition of modern industrial life, the intellectual potentialities of the average human being are only partially utilized.
What is the purpose of Theory Y
Theory Y's purpose is to encourage integration, to create a situation in which an employee can achieve his or her own goals best by directing his or her efforts toward the objectives of the organization. It is a deliberate attempt to link improvement in managerial competence with the satisfaction of higher-level ego and self-actualization needs. Theory Y leads to a preoccupation with the nature of relationships, with the creation of an environment which will encourage commitment to organizational objectives and which will provide opportunities for the maximum exercise of initiative, ingenuity, and self-direction in achieving them.
What is the purpose of Theory X?
Theory X leads naturally to an emphasis on the tactics of control - to procedures and techniques for telling people what to do, for determining whether they are doing it, and for administering rewards and punishment. Theory X explains the consequences of a particular managerial strategy. Because its assumptions are so unnecessarily limiting, it prevents managers from seeing the possibilities inherent in other managerial strategies. As long as the assumptions of Theory X influence managerial strategy, organizations will fail to discover, let alone utilize, the potentialities of the average human being.
How can you differentiate between a leader and a manager?
The key point in differentiating between leadership and management is the idea that employees willingly follow leaders because they want to, not because they have to. Leaders may not possess the formal power to reward or sanction performance. However, employees give the leader power by complying with what he or she requests. On the other hand, managers may have to rely on formal authority to get employees to accomplish goals.
What is a traditional definition of leadership?
Leadership is an interpersonal influence directed toward the achievement of a goal or goals.
Three important parts of this definition are the terms interpersonal, influence, and goal.
• Interpersonal means between persons. Thus, a leader has more than one person (group) to lead.
• Influence is the power to affect others.
• Goal is the end one strives to attain.
Basically, this traditional definition of leadership says that a leader influences more than one person toward a goal.
What is the definition of leadership in education?
a dynamic relationship based on mutual influence and common purpose between leaders and collaborators in which both are moved to higher levels of motivation and moral development as they affect real, intended change. Three important parts of this definition are the terms relationship, mutual, and collaborators. Relationship is the connection between people. Mutual means shared in common. Collaborators cooperate or work together.
This definition of leadership says that the leader is influenced by the collaborators while they work together to achieve an important goal.