Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/175

Click to flip

175 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What category does the CDC classify Antrhrax?
Category A
What are three forms of Anthrax
1) Cutaneous
2) Gastrointenstinal
2) Inhalation
Which form of Anthrax is considered the most lethal?
Inhalation
Why is inhalation Anthrax difficult to diagnose?
Because it presents so similarly to other infections with cold and flu like symptoms
What is the possible mortality rate with inhalation Anthrax?
90-100%
What is the action of Penicillin and Methicillin?
Interference with Cell Wall Synthesis
Currently, what percent of S aureus infections are susceptible to Penicillin and what percent are susceptible to Methicillin?
5% and 40.5%
Who is at the highest risk for a nosocomial MRSA infection?
Diabetic Patient
Which of the following has not been suggested as a method for controlling the spread of MRSA?
Prophylactic antibiotics for every incoming patient
Treatment of MRSA infections fall under the scope of chiropractic practice.
False
What country has the highest prevalence of childhood obesity?
US
What factors contribute to obesity?
Genetic, behavioral, environmental
What has been shown to significantly decrease BMI?
Decrease television viewing
Children who are obese do not have a greater risk of becoming obese adults. (T/F)
False
Body mass index (BMI) directly measures body fatness. (T/F)
False
Methamphetamine, an N-methylated derivative of Amphetamine, was originally used for
staying alert
losing weight
treating asthma
Methamphetamine acts on the central nervous system as a
dopamine reuptake inhibitor
Why has methamphetamine use become such an epidmenic in the U.S.?
cheap
easy to make
widespread use
"high" may last for days
What toxic chemical is used as an agricultural fertilizer and industrial refrigerant and is also commonly stolen for use in illicit methamphetamine production?
Anhydrous ammonia
What tertiary prevention method behavioral therapy approach has been successful in treating methamphetamine addiction?
Contigency management (immediate positive reinforcemennt)
How many cases of SARS were there globally and how many deaths?
8098 cases and 774 deaths
Hotel M is considered the location where the spread of SARS began. In which city is it located?
Hong Kong
The overall mortality rate of SARS globally was 9.6% (T/F)
True
The first case of SARS is in Guangdong, China in Novermber of which year?
2002
The U.S. reported 29 cases of SARS and 3 fatalities (T/F)
False
Which of the following are considered Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD's)?
All of the above (Asperger Syndrome, PDD, Autism)
Leo Kanner was the first to identify autism as a disorder in 1943 (T/F)
True
What are the indications of a child with Autism?
All of the above (Impairment in social interactions and communications, Repetitive behaviors and stereotyped behavior patterns)
What does the acronym ADDM Network stand for?
Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network
Which of the following are current studies as a public health approach to ASD?
All of the above (A.B.C., C.H.A.R.G.E. and E.M.A.)
Where does alcohol rank in actual COD'S?
Third highest
Is race or ethnicity a risk factor for alcoholism?
No.
Does alcohol abuse include symptoms of withdrawl or tolerance?
No.
What is the simplest questionnaire for alcohool abuse screening available to primary care physicians?
CAGE questionnaire.
What type of risk factor for alcoholism is the most relevant?
Sociological.
What are 2 potential risk factors for otitis media?
Premature birth, daycare attendance
What is the #1 reason for surgery under the age of 6?
Otitits media
What is the #1 reason a child takes antibiotics?
Otitis media
What percentage of AOM patients leave the Dr's office with an antibiotic prescription?
98% domestically
How much is spent annually as a direct cost of otitis media?
$3-5 billion annually
What states in the U.S. have shown to be endemic to Valley Fever?
California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas
How is Valley fever spread?
By inhalation of aerosolized spores in undeveloped soil. Not person to person.
Of the four stages of Valley Fever, which stage is most infective?
Arthroconidia Stage
What percentage of people infected with Valley Fever are symptomatic?
40%
What kinds of symptoms show in an infected person? (Valley Fever)
Flu-like symptoms: fever, cough, headache, myalgia
What is the residence time of mercury in the atmosphere?
Up to 1 year of greater
What is the neurotoxic form of mercury consumed in fish tissues?
Methylmercury
What fish tend to have the highest mercury concentrations?
Shark, swordfish, tuna, mackerel, marlin
What ethnic populations consume the highest quantity of fish in US?
Pacific Islander, Asian, Native American, and multiracial
What populations are most at risk to exposure to high concentrations of methylmercury?
Women of childbearing age, pregnant women, nursing women, young children
Some telltale characteristics of asthma are
All of the above (wheezing and dyspnea, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and sensitivity, and airway inflammation
Current prevalence of asthma in the US increasing at about the same rate as the rest of the world.
False, asthma appears to be stabilizing in the US but increasing worldwide
Cockroaches are a known trigger for asthma
True, especially in urban inner cities in the US
Asthma and allergy are closely intertwined and identifiable allergens, such as house dust mites and pet dander, are common triggers for asthma attacks. Such asthma is called
atopic asthma
Air pollution and asthma attacks
May be linked and the risk of developing asthma increases the closer you live to a freeway
What is the easiest and least costly way to prevent football injuries?
Athlete education
Why is the incidence of spinal cord injuries 2.5 times higher in Louisiana as compared to the rest of the country?
Lack of knowledge of proper tackling
What type of fracture is common when football players lead with their helmet to tackle?
Compression fracture
The anterior cruciate ligament will heal on its own if torn? (T/F)
False
Concussions have no long term effects. (T/F)
False
According to the statistical abstract of the united states, adolescent suicide was the (blank) leading cause of non-disease related death in 2003.
third
Which of the following are found to be risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal behavior?
All of the above (Mental health issues, female gender, family issues, friendships and peer influence)
Within the Berman et al (2004) study, adolescents who engaged with fewer regular family activities were more likely to have suicidal thoughts. (T/F)
True
Which of the following are possible strategies for primary prevention of adolescent suicidal behavior?
All of the above (Public education, preventative counseling, parent programs, support hotlines for teens)
Non-mental healthcare clinicians such as chiropractors may have an important role in recognizing certain risk factors associated with adolescent suicidal behavior. (T/F)
True
How many guns are suspected to be in the US?
200-250 million
What age group are the most affected by homicides?
15-35
What industrialized country has the most homicides from hand guns?
US
It is estimated that 45,000 homicides happen from hand guns in the US each year. (T/F)
False
What is the #1 cause for decrease in gun violence in the US?
Increased police patrolling
Hepatitis C incidence has been declining since the late 1980's. (T/F)
True
What is the most common cause of liver transplantation in the US?
HCV
HCV is always transmitted through blood (T/F)
True
HCV is genetic (T/F)
False
There is currently no vaccine for HCV. (T/F)
True
What is true of infertility?
All of the above. (The inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected sexual intercourse. It causes an emotional and financial strain on a couple. Primary care physicians can investigate and treat infertility.)
Which one of the following ranges represents the estimated prevalence of infertility in the US population?
15-20%
Which one of the following is not a common adverse effect of Clomiphene?
Vaginal bleeding
Which one of the following is most important in the evaluation of infertility in the male patient?
Analysis of semen
Cost-effective healthcare is good-quality healthcare, and therefore good-quality healthcare in any market can be nothing other than cost-effective healthcare. (T/F)
True
What is the 2nd major cause of death in the world?
Smoking-related deaths
Who are the most prevalent smokers in the US?
Native-Americans
Which of these is NOT an increased risk factor for smoking?
Occupation
Smoking costs the US over $167 billion dollars annually? (T/F)
True
What is a way of preventing the increase in smoking?
All of the above (Public awareness, increasing tabacco taxes, making cigarettes less accessible to minors)
SIDS is the (blank) leading cause of infant mortality in the US.
3rd
When putting an infant to sleep, what position is related to a higher risk of SIDS?
Prone
Sharing a bed with your infant is safer than placing them in a bed alone. (T/F)
False
Between 1990 and 2001 mortality rates due to SIDS declined by what percentage?
57.4%
What is the name of the campaign developed by the American Academy of Pediatrics related to the decline in U.S. SIDS rates?
Back to Sleep Campaign
How many subtypes of ADHD are there?
Three
What are the three characteristic symptoms of ADHD?
Hyperactivity, inattentiveness and impulsiveness
What are three risk factors for ADHD?
Hereditary, environmental, and gender
What is the most common form of treatment?
Stimulant medication
Why is medication the most common form of treatment?
Cost effectiveness
What race/ethnicity is most commonly diagnosed with Breast Cancer?
White women
What is the number one way to prevent Breast Cancer?
Mammography screening
What are a few of the risk factors associated with breast cancer?
older age, early menstration, personal and family history of breast cancer, radiation to breast chest, etc.
What are a few of the medical advancements made today for the treatment and management of breast cancer?
Surgery, Radiation, Chemotherapy
What are some preventative health strategies a woman can practice on her own to reduce her own risk factors?
Take care of weight, get mammograms, ??
Which group has a higher risk for fractures?
White females
Which is the most accurate method for screening?
DEXA
Which of the following is the most effective and preventative treatment?
Exercise
Can alcohol and tabacco increase the risk for osteoporosis?
True
Where is most of the money spent on the treatment of the disease? (Osteoporosis)
Nurse home care
What is the highest ranking cancer in the US?
Lung cancer
What is the primary method for prostate cancer screening?
PSA blood test
What are two reasons for PSA unreliability?
Length and lead biases
What nutritionally has been shown to reduce the risks of prostate cancer?
Antioxidants
What condition has similar symptoms to prostate cancer?
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
J. Robert Flores pointed out 6 possibilities for why the 2000 CPS Agency report had shown a 40% decrease from the last report in 1986. Which of the following is not one of them?
The indicated cases have shown a 30-40% decrease since 1986.
The responsibility of a Health Professional includes
Reporting the findings to a child abuse prevention hotline
The U.N. reported their first findings on world violence and child abuse
2006, and released in many languages and in children friendly versions.
Neglect is considered
All of the above (differentiated from the term 'child abuse' by a majority of the states, a form of child abuse, the highest % of child abuse, more so than physical abuse)
A 45 year old lady walks into your office with her child who is not under your chiropractic care, is in your office appears to have unattended to bruises, inappropriate clothing for the weather and hasn't appeared to have had a bath in a while.
Report it to any of the Child Abuse Prevention hotlines.
How many people are estimated to have Genital Herpes in the US according to the CDC?
1 out of 5 people
Researchers estimate that approimately 70% of all new infections happen during what phase of the disease? (Genital Herpes)
Asymptomatic shedding of the virus
There is a cure for genital herpes. (T/F)
False
The prevalence rates are rapidly increasing the most in what groups of people? (Genital Herpes)
Teens and young adults.
The loss of virginity at a very young age is a documented risk factor for acquiring genital herpes. (T/F)
True
Which of the following is a side effect of oral contraceptives?
All of the above (Increased risk of breast cancer, stroke, and blood clot formation)
Which one of these is a benefit of oral contraceptives?
All of the above (Lower incidence of colorectal cancer, Reduction in primary dysmenorrheal pain and improvement of acne)
As of 2002 there were 38 million American women between the ages of 15-44 using contraceptives. (T/F)
True
Which of these hormones are used in an oral contraceptive pill?
A and C (Estrogen and Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
Oral contraceptives prevent pregnancies by preventing ovulation only? (T/F)
False
Hypertension is classified as a blood pressure of
>140/90
According to the Framingham Heart Study, individuals with hypertension are 1.5 to 2.5 times more likely to have a heart attack, stroke or heart failure in 10 years compared to those that keep their blood pressure down to levels below 120/80 mmHg (T/F)
True
Hypertension affects (blank) adults in the US alone and another (blank) that are inflicted with prehypertension
50 million
45 million
Women on a whole were more likely to have higher hypertension during their later years than men and African American incidence rates were higher regardless of gender (T/F)
True
The cost for annual health care coverage has been estimated at $(blank) a year.
15 million
Elderly drivers cause most of the car accidents at intersections? (T/F)
True
Automobile fatalities are the leading cause of death among children and young adults ages 5-33 (T/F)
True
The number of automobile deaths has had a dramatic increase in the passed 30 years. (T/F)
False
What is the most dangerous blood alcohol content to operate a motor vehicle with?
0.08
Elderly drivers are at a higher risk on the road because?
Slow reaction time, and poor vision.
What is the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis?
Norovirus
How does Norovirus present?
Diarrhea, Vomitting, Stomach Cramps
Who gets infected with Norovirus?
Anyone can become infected
Are Noroviruses contagious?
Yes, very contagious
What is the most common cause of foodborne outbreaks?
Norovirus
How far back in time does water treatment date?
4000 BC
How is Cholera transmitted?
Ass to Mouth
What is the net economic impact due to water Fluoridation?
Estimated savings of $39 Billion
What organizm is impenetrable to ozonation?
nontuburculous mycobacteria
What stage of water treatment passes water through sand gravel and charcoal?
Filtration
What is malaria?
Parasite
What transmits Malaria?
Anopheles mosquito
What is the estimated deaths due to Malaria annually?
1 million
What is the "tell tail" sign of Malaria?
Fever
Vaccination is currently the most efficient method to prevent malaria infection? (T/F)
False.
How many Americans are affected by Nosocomial Infections yearly?
2 million
What are the major sites for Nosocomial Infections?
All of the above (UTI, Surgery site, Bloodstream)
What proportion of Nosocomial Infections per year are considered preventable?
1/3
Barrier precautions such as gowns and gloves can be helpful in preventing nosocomial infections. (T/F)
True
What are common symptoms of Nosocomial Infections?
All of the above (Pain, fever, night sweats)
HIV/AIDS is an example of a/an (blank) disease.
Pandemic
Which of the following is NOT an example of a cost of HIV/AIDS in 'developing' nations?
Increased availability of primary education
Heterosexual women are the group with the fastest growing incidence rate of HIV/AIDS? (T/F)
True
An individual may be infected with HIV test "negative" for HIV on the ELISA test, and still be at risk for transmitting HIV. (T/F)
True
Which of the following is an example of secondary prevention of HIV?
Screening of high risk individuals using the ELISA test to detect early
Any strain of HPV can lead to cervical cancer (T/F)
False
What is the percentage of the population that will at some point in their lives be infected with HPV?
50%
HPV necessarily leads to cervical cancer?
Sometimes
Men should not be concerned about this virus. (T/F) (HPV)
False
If given, at what point should a female be given the vaccine? (HPV)
Prior to the onset of sexual activity.
Manic Depression is
A and C (A component of Bipolar disorder and easily overlooked because of potential overly positive attitude)
What is the key factor in diagnosing or recognizing the potential that a person might have bipolar disorder?
History of manic episodes
Bipolar disorder
All of the above
-Is ranked 6th of the top 10 most debilitating conditions.
-Has no discrimination between race and socioeconomic status.
-Females > Males by 2:1
Bipolar disorder has a mortality rate of 5-15% as a result of suicide.
True
Symptoms of mania include 3 of the following choices
Grandiosity, Fast Speech, Endless amounts of energy
What is the most common age for a case of Chicken Pox?
1-14
What was the year that a vaccine was developed for the Varicella-Zoster Virus?
1995
The Varicella Vaccine has reduced the incidence of Herpes Zoster. (T/F)
False
Chicken Pox is a self-limiting disease. (T/F)
True
Chiropractic can help alleviate Post-Herpetic Neuralgia. (T/F)
True