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60 Cards in this Set

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epidemiology has been called?
population medicine
-study outbreaks, diseases, injury, death in human pop
epidemiology is the study of?
distribution and determinants of health related states or events in SPECIFIED POPULATIONS, and the app of this study to control health problems
endemic diseases are diseases that occur?
regularly in a pop as a matter of course (always there)
Epidemic is an unexpected
large number of cases of an illness, specific health-related behavior, or other health-related event in a particular population
an epidemiologist is an investigator who studies?
the occurrence of disease or other health-related conditions or events in defined populations
Epizootic is outbreak of?
disease that begins in animals and spreads to humans
pandemic is outbreak of disease...
over a wide geographical area such as a continent (flu pandemic of 1918-19 killed 25 million people worldwide)
brieg history of epidemiology
-
300BC hippocrates- suggested a relationship btw?
disease and environment
1793 yellow fever in Philly killed...
4044 people, caused by mosquito, discovered in 1901 by Maj walter reed
1849 Cholera in london, snow investigated and in 1854...
removed broad street pump handle, 30 yrs prior to louis pasteurs germ theory
Importance of rates-
cases are...
1. those affected
rates are the number of events that....
occur in a given pop in a given time period, three categories are
natality-birth
morbidity-sickness
mortality/fatality rates
importance of rates allows for...
a comparison of outbreaks that occur at different times or in different places
incidence rate is the number of..
NEW hx related events or cases of a disease in a population exposed to that risk in time period
prevalence rate is calculated by...
dividing ALL current cases of a disease OLD AND NEW by the total population at risk in a given time period
attack rate is a special incidence rate calculated for..
a particular population for a single disease outbreak expressed as a %
acute diseases are those that last...
3 months or less (sudden onset, severe manifestations, complete recovery
chronic diseases are those that last ....
3 months or longer (insidious onset, moderate manifestations, incomplete recovery
prevalence rate can be used to.... 2
measure amount of illness in a community
2. determine health care needs of a community
- influenced by incidence rate and duration of illness
crude rates are those in which the denominator includes the?
total population
specific rates measure .....
morbidity or mortality for particular populations or diseases
case fatality rate is the percentage of....
cases that resulted in death
case fatality rate = ?
# death due to X disease/
# cases of same disease
so case fatality rate predicts risk of...
dying of a disease
ex: tetanus: CFR 30-90% depending on age
proportionate mortality ratio describes the relationship btw...
the number of deaths from a specific cause and the total number of deaths attributed to all causes

PMR= # of death due to X cause/
total number of deaths
-not a rate
-to determine RELATIVE importance in relation to all other causes w/in a certain population
Notifiable diseases are infectious diseases which....
health officials request or req reporting
NETS- national electronic telecommunications systems is the electronic reporting system....
used by state health dept and CDC
morbidity and mortality weekly report MMWR- a report of....
CDC used to present notifiable disease data
Cali code title 17, sect 2500, pub hx professional, med providers and others are mandated to report...
84 diseases or conditions to their local hx dept- disease of pub hx importance-- also people in charge of schools
disease reporting... why?
1. protect pub hx
2. determine extent of morbidity
3. evaluate risk of transmission
4. interven rapidly when appropriate
according to PH reporting is?
immediate by telephone
2. mail report w/in 1 work day
immediate by tel when 2 or more , from diff households, are suspected
w/in 7 calendar days from time of identification
failure to report is a misdemeanor by fine no less than 50 no more than $1000, imprisonment up to...
90 days or both
each day violation is cont is seperate offense
commonly used vaccines are?
1. live attenuated viral- measle, mumps, rubella, polio, yellowfever
2. killed or fractionated viral- influena, hep B, rabies
3. killed or fractionated bacterial vacc- H. influena type B, cholera, typhoid fever
Toxoid is a modified bacterial toxin that has been...
rendered non toxic but retains the ability to stimulate the formation of antitoxin
commonly used toxoids include?
diphteria and tetanus
HERD IMMUNITY- portrays spread of communicable diseases w/in a group based on thepercentages of.....
susceptibla and immune individuals in the group. epidemics or outbreaks of disease occur when the proportion of susceptble indiv id high and disappear as the proportion of immune indiv increase
Standardized measurement of Health status of populations
-
Mortality statisitics is?
leading causes of death- single most reliable measure of pop death
ex; 1900-pneumonia and influena, tb, diarrhea
Life expectancy is the ave number of years a....
person from a specific cohort is projected to live from a given point in time.
years of potential life YPLL)- is the number of years lost when...
death occurs before age 65-75
sources of standardized data

U.S. Census is conducted every...
10 years, enumeration of population
the monthly vital statisitics report is statistical summaries of...
records of major life events
morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR) is prepared by the CDC and reports
cases of notifiable diseased in the US, includes articles on other pub hx problems
National health surveys are?
1. hx interviews of peopl
2. clinical tests, measurements, physical exam
3. survey of places where people receive medical care
Epidemiological studies- 4 types
what are the four types?
1. descriptive studies
analytical studies-
2. prospective studies (cohort)
3. retrospective study (case control)
4. experimantal studies
descriptive studies describe?
who- age, sex, ethnic...

when/time- time of day, week, incubation period

where/place- country state, county, domestic/foreign
to answer the question of-when?
Epidemic curve is a graphic display of the cases of a.....
disease according to the time or date of onset
propagated epidemic curve is an epidemic curve depicting a.....
distribution of cases traceable to multiple sources of exposure
epidemiologic variables, what are the three categories?
time
person
place
Time: long years ----> secular tendencies---->?
2. moderate--->seasonal variations--->?

3. short---> epidemic situation---> ?
years
-some diseases have periodicity- used to speculate future trends

2. months- provide info about mode of transmission and reservoir

3. days (epidemic curve)
Epidemic curves-
Type 1 point source depicts?
1. rapid rise and fall
2. all fall w/in on I.P- (incubation period)
3. caused by common source at one point in time
4. if I.P of disease is known
5. days can be counted backwards so source can be Id'd
Epidemic curves-
Type 2, propagated depicts?
1. cases occur over 1 I.P.
2. shape of curve suggest- P-P transmission or cont common source
PERSON;
describes characteristics that...
describe the host
*no two persons are alike
PLACE; specific geographic point or area and its?
factors and features
-mainly used to determine source of infection, but may be used to determine mode of transmission
case/control study (retrospective) is one that seeks to compare those diagnosed with a disease with those who....
do not have the disease for prior exposure to specific risk factors
Cohort study (prospective study) is one in which a cohort is classified by exposure to one or more.....
specific risk factors and observed to determine the rates at which disease develops in each group
disadvantages of cohort (prospective studies) is? 3
1. expensive
2. take years to complete
3. not very useful for studying rare diseases ( may not develop in the cohort)
to determine effectiveness of a new vaccine, therap drug, surgical procedure, a study carried out under controlled conditions with what three principals?
1. control group (receiving placebo)
2. randomization
3. blindness
odds ratio; is a probability statement about the association btw....
1. a particular disease and specific risk factor resulting from a case/control study