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38 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
application of statistics to biological sciences are?

collection
description interpretation classification analysis presentation 
descriptive and analytic is?

the summary measurement of data

Data
refer to individual values that are 
presented
measured observed 
properties of data include?

sample or population
grouped/ungrouped quantitative/quallitative discrete or continuous 
where do we get our data
Simple random where each has an... 
oppurtunity,
chance alone 
non random data is a selection...

based on known factors

stratified selected data is population divided into....

sampling units, a random sample is chosen from each

Data grouped or ungrouped
if presented in groups, it consists of... 
identical data
by frequency 
if ungrouped it is presented...

individually

Quantitative or qualitative
quantitative is based on? 
numbers. measuring in weight or in Kg

qualitative is non...

numerical
based on categories * measure weight in terms of light weight, med wt, heavy weight 
Discrete or continuous
discrete data is? 
distinct categories
limited number of possible values exist ex; no of children in family is 3 or 4, not 3.5 
COntinuous data is unlimited...

number of possible values
ex; individ weight may be 149.23345lb but reported as 149lb 
characteristics of data



accuracy is exactness, measure true....
precision is consistent and... 
value of what being studied
2. reproducible 
reliability is stable dependable and...
validity is measures what is supposed..... 
sound
2. to be measured 
Distributions



distribution is the complete summary of frequencies or proportions of a characteristics for.....

a series of data from a population or a sample

normal distribution is?

symmetrical, gaussian, continuous bell shape

Uniform distribution is?

rectangular, where all events occur with equal frequency

Skewed distributions, assymetrical may be?

positively skewed to the right, or negatively skewed to the left

Descriptive statistics 
measures of central affinity describe.... 
the middle
most common occurring values in a series values can be grouped or ungrouped 
Arithmetic mean is sensitive to?

extreme values in a series

Median divides series into?
2. it is the middle of? 
2 equal groups
NOT sensitive to extreme values 2. percentiles 
Mode is the most....

occurring value in a series
useful in epi studies as determining peak of disease occurence in an epi outbreak investigation 
range is the difference between?

highest and lowest value
 used to measure data spread 
variance us used to calculate?

standard deviation

Analytical statistics
probability is the quantitative expression of... 
the likelihood of occurence
 defined in terms of relative freqency 
Screening
theories are concerned with? 
chronic comm disease
acute/chronic non comm disease acute/chronic NMS disorders 
what other topics of theories are there?

diagnosticc testing
used as a case finding tool treatment testing 
screening
programs must meet certain criteria. what are the 5? 
segment being screened r they high risk?
2. the disease enough concern to comm being screened? 3. undiagnosed disease should be more responsive to Tx 4. Screening test 5. those w/ positive results guaranteed follow up evaluation 
what two ratios measure ability of screening test to dicriminate?

sensitivity and specificity

Sensitivity is the ability to ID correctly those who....

do not have the same disease
when sensitivity is 100% and result is negative 
sensitivity is the ability of the test to give a positive result when...

person tested truly has the disease
expressed as % 
Specificity is the ability to ID correctly those who....

have the disease.
when specificity is 100% the result is positive 
setting the cutoff depends on?

natural history of the disease
effectiveness of intervention (early&late) must be known 
setting the cutoff
if disease is very rare sensitivity must be .... 
high, or the few cases present will be missed

if disease is prevalent specificity must be?

high
