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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
application of statistics to biological sciences are?
collection
description
interpretation
classification
analysis
presentation
descriptive and analytic is?
the summary measurement of data
Data-
refer to individual values that are
presented
measured
observed
properties of data include?
sample or population
grouped/ungrouped
quantitative/quallitative
discrete or continuous
where do we get our data-

Simple random where each has an...
oppurtunity,
chance alone
non random data is a selection...
based on known factors
stratified selected data is population divided into....
sampling units, a random sample is chosen from each
Data grouped or ungrouped-
if presented in groups, it consists of...
identical data
by frequency
if ungrouped it is presented...
individually
Quantitative or qualitative-

quantitative is based on?
numbers. measuring in weight or in Kg
qualitative is non...
numerical
based on categories
* measure weight in terms of light weight, med wt, heavy weight
Discrete or continuous-

discrete data is?
distinct categories
limited number of possible values exist
ex; no of children in family is 3 or 4, not 3.5
COntinuous data is unlimited...
number of possible values
ex; individ weight may be 149.23345lb
but reported as 149lb
characteristics of data
-
accuracy is exactness, measure true....

precision is consistent and...
value of what being studied

2. reproducible
reliability is stable dependable and...

validity is measures what is supposed.....
sound

2. to be measured
Distributions
-
distribution is the complete summary of frequencies or proportions of a characteristics for.....
a series of data from a population or a sample
normal distribution is?
symmetrical, gaussian, continuous bell shape
Uniform distribution is?
rectangular, where all events occur with equal frequency
Skewed distributions, assymetrical may be?
positively skewed to the right, or negatively skewed to the left
Descriptive statistics -
measures of central affinity describe....
the middle
most common occurring values in a series
values can be grouped or ungrouped
Arithmetic mean is sensitive to?
extreme values in a series
Median divides series into?

2. it is the middle of?
2 equal groups
NOT sensitive to extreme values

2. percentiles
Mode is the most....
occurring value in a series

useful in epi studies as determining peak of disease occurence in an epi outbreak investigation
range is the difference between?
highest and lowest value
- used to measure data spread
variance us used to calculate?
standard deviation
Analytical statistics-
probability is the quantitative expression of...
the likelihood of occurence
- defined in terms of relative freqency
Screening-
theories are concerned with?
chronic comm disease
acute/chronic non comm disease
acute/chronic NMS disorders
what other topics of theories are there?
diagnosticc testing
used as a case finding tool
treatment testing
screening-
programs must meet certain criteria. what are the 5?
segment being screened- r they high risk?
2. the disease- enough concern to comm being screened?
3. un-diagnosed disease- should be more responsive to Tx
4. Screening test
5. those w/ positive results- guaranteed follow up evaluation
what two ratios measure ability of screening test to dicriminate?
sensitivity and specificity
Sensitivity is the ability to ID correctly those who....
do not have the same disease
-when sensitivity is 100% and result is negative
sensitivity is the ability of the test to give a positive result when...
person tested truly has the disease

expressed- as %
Specificity is the ability to ID correctly those who....
have the disease.

-when specificity is 100% the result is positive
setting the cutoff depends on?
natural history of the disease
-effectiveness of intervention (early&late) must be known
setting the cutoff-

if disease is very rare sensitivity must be ....
high, or the few cases present will be missed
if disease is prevalent specificity must be?
high