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412 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
avascular
pertaining to a type of tissue that does not have blood vessels
cutaneous
pertaining to the skin
cutane
skin
dermis
deeper layer of skin composed of nerves, blood vessels, hair follicles, and sebaceous (oil) and sudoriferous (sweat)
derm
skin
epidermis
outer protective layer of skin that covers the body and does not have a blood or nerve supply
lesion
wound, injury, or pathological change in body tissue
sebaceous
pertaining to sebum, an oily fatty substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
subcutaneous
pertaining to under the skin
sudoriferous
pertaining to or producing sweat
systemic
pertaining to a system or the whole body rather than a localized area
therapeutic
pertaining to treating, remediating, or curing a disorder or disease
sub-
under, below
-pathy
disease
therapeut
treatment
vascular
pertaining to or containing blood vessels
Dermatologists focus on diseases of the skin, and the relationship of a _____ ____ to a _____ _____
cutaneous lesion
systemic disease
What is the largest organ of the body?
the skin
integumentary
skin
What is the outer layer of the skin?
epidermis
What functions does the epidermis have?
- protects the body from the environment
- prevents entry of harmful substances
Is the epidermis vascular or avascular?
avascular, because it is composed of epithelial tissue and does not contain blood vessels
-ac
-al
-ar(y)
-eal
-ic
-ical
-ior
-ous
-tic
pertaining to
What is the inner layer of the skin?
dermis
Is the dermis vascular or avascular?
vascular
What structures lie within the dermis?
- blood vessels
- nerve endings
- sebaceous (oil) glands
- sudoriferous (sweat) glands
- hair follicles
What binds the dermis to underlying structures?
subcutaneous tissue
What are the main functions of the subcutaneous tissue?
- protect the tissues and organs underneath it
- prevent heat loss
What are the accessory organs of the skin?
- nails
- sweat glands
- sebaceous glands
adip/o
fat
lip/o
fat
steat/o
fat
cutane/o
skin
dermat/o
skin
derm/o
skin
cyan/o
blue
erythem/o
red
erythemato/o
red
erythr/o
red
-cele
hernia, swelling
-oma
tumor
cyan
blue
-osis
abnormal condition; increase

(used primarily with blood cells)
-rrhage
-rrhagia
bursting (of)
homo-
homeo-
same
-graft
transplantation
hypo-
under, below, deficient
-cyte
cell
-therapy
treatment
hetero-
different
carcin/o
cancer
-plasty
surgical repair
hidr/o
sweat

(do not mistake hidr/o--sweat for hydr/o--water)
sudor/o
sweat
-esis
condition
ichthy/o
dry, scaly
kerat/o
horny tissue, hard, cornea
melan/o
black
myc/o
fungus (pl. fungi)
onych/o
nail
pil/o
hair
trich/o
hair
-malacia
softening
nid
nest
scler/o
hardening, sclera (white of eye)
seb/o
sebum, sebaceous
squam/o
scale
therm/o
heat
xer/o
dry
-rrhea
discharge, flow
leuk/o
white
carcin
cancer
-phoresis
carrying, transmission
cry/o
cold
abrasion
scraping or rubbing away of a surface, such as skin, by friction
abscess
localized collection of pus at the site of an infection (characteristically a staphylococcal infection)
furuncle
an abscess that originates in a hair follicle; also called a boil
carbuncle
cluster of furuncles in the subcutaneous tissue
acne
inflammatory disease of sebaceous follicles of the skin, marked by comedos (blackheads), papules, and pustules (small skin lesions filled with purulent material)
alopecia
absence or loss of hair, especially of the head (baldness)
burn
tissue injury caused by contact with a thermal, chemical, electrical, or radioactive agent
first-degree burn
superficial

mild burn affecting the epidermis and characterized by redness and pain with no blistering or scar formation
second-degree burn
partial thickness

burn affecting the epidermis and part of the dermis and characterized by redness, blistering or larger bullae, and pain with little or no scarring
third-degree burn
full thickness

severe burn characterized by destruction of the epidermis and dermis with damage to the subcutaneous layer, leaving the skin charred black or dry white in appearance with insensitivity to touch
carcinoma
uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body; also called malignant cells

(in epithelial tissue, spread through lymph)
melanoma
malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and is considered the most dangerous type of skin cancer, which, if not treated early, becomes difficult to cure and can be fatal
comedo
discolored, dried sebum plugging an excretory duct of the skin

blackhead
cyst
closed sac or pouch in or under the skin with a definite wall that contains fluid, semifluid, or solid material

bladder
pilonidal (cyst)
growth of hair in a dermoid cyst or in a sinus opening on the skin
sebaceous (cyst)
cyst filled with sebum (fatty material) from a sebaceous gland
eczema
redness of skin caused by swelling of the capillaries
gangrene
death of tissue, usually resulting from loss of blood supply
hemorrhage
external or internal loss of a large amount of blood in a short period
contusion
hemorrhage of any size under the skin in which the skin is not broken

bruise
ecchymosis
skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow

bruise
petechia
minute, pinpoint hemorrhagic spot of the skin that is a smaller version of an ecchymosis
hematoma
elevated, localized collection of blood trapped under the skin that usually results from trauma
hirsutism
excessive growth of hair in unusual places, especially in women; may be due to hypersecretion of testosterone
ichthyosis
genetic skin disorder in which the skin is dry and scaly (resembling fish skin) due to a defect in keratinization
impetigo
bacterial skin infection characterized by isolated pustules that become crusted and rupture
keloid
overgrowth of scar tissue at the site of a skin injury (especially a wound, surgical incision, or severe burn) due to excessive collagen formation during the healing process
psoriasis
chronic skin disease characterized by itchy red patches covered with silvery scales
scabies
contagious skin disease transmitted by the itch mite
skin lesions
areas of pathologically altered tissue caused by disease, injury, or a wound due to external factors or internal disease
ulcer
lesion of the skin or mucous membranes marked by inflammation, necrosis, and sloughing of damaged tissues
pressure ulcer
skin ulceration caused by prolonged pressure, usually in a person who is bedridden

also known as decubitus ulcer or bedsore
urticaria
allergic reaction of the skin characterized by eruption of pale red elevated patches that are intensely itchy

also called wheals or hives
verruca
rounded epidermal growth caused by a virus

also called a wart
vesicle
small, blister-like elevation on the skin containing a clear fluid

large vesicles are called bullae (singular: bulla)
vitiligo
localized loss of skin pigmentation characterized by milk-white patches

also called leukoderma
wheal
smooth, slightly elevated skin that is white in the center with a pale red periphery

also called hives if itchy
biopsy
removal of a small piece of living tissue from an organ or other part of the body for microscopic examination to confirm or establish a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease
bi-
life
-opsy
view of
skin test
any test in which a suspected allergen or sensitizer is applied to or injected into the skin to determine the patient's sensitivity to it
cryosurgery
use of subfreezing temperature, commonly with liquid nitrogen, to destroy abnormal tissue cells, such as unwanted, cancerous, or infected tissue
debridement
removal of foreign material, damaged tissue, or cellular debris from a wound or burn to prevent infection and promote healing
fulguration
tissue destruction by means of high-frequency electric current

also called electrodessication
incision and drainage (I&D)
incision of a lesion, such as an abscess, followed by the drainage of its contents
Mohs surgery
surgical procedure used primarily to treat skin neoplasms in which tumor tissue fixed in place is removed layer by layer for microscopic examination until the entire tumor is removed
skin graft
surgical procedure to transplant healthy tissue by applying it to an injured site
allograft
transplantation of healthy tissue from one person to another

also called homograft
allo
other, differing from normal
autograft
transplantation of healthy tissue from one site to another site in the same individual
auto
self, own
synthetic
transplantation of artificial skin produced from collagen fibers arranged in a lattice pattern
xenograft
transplantation (dermis only) from a foreign donor (usually a pig) and transferred to a human

also called a heterograft
xen/o
foreign, strange
skin resurfacing
procedure that repairs damaged skin, acne scars, fine or deep wrinkles, or tattoos or improves skin tone irregularities through the use of topical chemicals, abrasion, or laser
chemical peel
use of chemicals to remove outer layers of skin to treat acne scarring and general keratoses as well as for cosmetic purposes to remove fine wrinkles on the face

also called chemabrasion
cutaneous laser
any of several laser treatments employed for cosmetic and plastic surgery
dermabrasion
removal of acne scars, nevi, tattoos, or fine wrinkles on the skin through the use of sandpaper, wire brushes, or other abrasive materials on the epidermal layer
antibiotics
kill bacteria that cause skin infections
antifungals
kill fungi that infect the skin
antipruritics
reduce severe itching
What is the most common type of nonmelanoma skin cancer?
basal cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma is a cancerous tumor of:
the basal layer of the epidermis or hair follicles
What is the second most common type of nonmelanoma skin cancer?
squamous cell carcinoma
Which cancer is more likely to metastasize, basal cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma?
squamous cell carcinoma

basal cell carcinoma rarely metastasizes
tinea
fungal infection whose name commonly indicates the body part affected, such as tinea pedis (athlete's foot)

also called ringworm
Bx
bx
biopsy
CA
cancer
chronological age
cardiac arrest
Derm
dermatology
FH
family history
I&D
incision and drainage
irrigation and debridement
IM
intramuscular
IMP
impression (synonymous with diagnosis)
PE
physical examination
pulmonary embolism
pressure equalizing (tube--ear tubes)
SCC
squamous cell carcinoma
subcu
Sub-Q
subQ
subcutaneous (injection)
UV
ultraviolet
WBC
white blood count
macule
discolored area on the skin that is not elevated
intermittent
condition that comes and goes
syncope
fainting episode
vulgaris
common or ordinary
colitis
inflammation of the colon
chronic
of long duration
sclerosed
hardened
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
pruritis
severe itching
Bartholin gland
mucous gland at the vaginal opening
papule
elevated lesion containing pus (as seen in acne and psoriasis)
diagnosis
identification of a disease or condition by a scientific evaluation of physical signs, symptoms, history, laboratory test results, and procedures
pulmonary
pertaining to the lungs or the respiratory system
respiration
molecular exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the body's tissues

also called breathing, pulmonary ventilation, or ventilation
thoracic
pertaining to the thorax or thoracic cage (bony enclosure formed by the sternum, costal cartilages, ribs, and the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae)
gnos
knowing
pulmon
lung
pulmonologist
specialist who treats respiratory disorders
Organs that comprise the respiratory system:
- nose
- pharynx
- larynx
- trachea
- bronchial tubes
- lungs
- breathing muscles
What is external respiration?
oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and absorbed into the bloodstream

carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and enters the lungs where it is expelled during exhalation
What is external respiration?
oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and absorbed into the bloodstream

carbon dioxide leaves the bloodstream and enters the lungs where it is expelled during exhalation
What is internal respiration?
oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged at the cellular level

oxygen leaves the bloodstream and is delivered to the tissue cells, where it is used for energy

in exchange, carbon dioxide enters the bloodstream from the tissues and is transported back to the lungs for removal
adenoid/o
adenoids
laryngo/o
larynx (voice box)
nas/o
nose
rhino/o
nose
pharyng/o
pharynx (throat)
-spasm
involuntary contraction, twitching
tonsill/o
tonsils
trache/o
trachea (windpipe)
-tomy
incision
alve/o
alveolus, air sac
bronch/o
bronchus (plural: bronchi)
-ectasis
expansion, dilation
bronchiol/o
bronchiole
phren/o
diaphragm
-algia
pain
pleur/o
pleura
-dynia
pain
pneum/o
air, lung
pneumon/o
air, lung
pulmon/o
lung
thorac/o
chest
aer/o
air
-phagia
swallowing, eating
mastoid/o
mastoid process (houses air cells which direct sound waves into the inner ear)
muc/o
mucus
-oid
resembling
orth/o
straight
-pnea
breathing
py/o
pus
-plegia
paralysis
brady-
slow
dys-
bad, painful, difficult
eu-
good, normal
tachy-
rapid
abnormal breath sounds
abnormal sounds heard during inhalation or expiration, with or without a stethoscope
crackles
fine crackling or bubbling sounds, commonly heard during inspiration when there is fluid in the alveoli

also called rales
friction rub
dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during auscultation (listening for sounds within the body)
rhonchi
loud coarse or snoring sounds heard during inspiration or expiration; caused by obstructed airways
stridor
high-pitched, musical sound made on inspiration; caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx
wheezes
continuous high-pitched whistling sounds, usually during expiration; caused by narrowing of an airway
acidosis
excessive acidity of blood due to an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate caused by abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the body
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
life-threatening build-up of fluid in the air sacs (alveoli), caused by vomit into the lungs (aspiration), inhaling chemicals, pneumonia, septic shock, or trauma, that prevents enough oxygen from passing into the bloodstream

also called adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
anosmia
absence or decrease in the sense of smell
-osmia
smell
anoxia
total absence of oxygen in body tissues caused by a lack of oxygen in inhaled air or by obstruction that prevents oxygen from reaching the lungs
-oxia
oxygen
asphyxia
condition of insufficient intake of oxygen due to choking, toxic gases, electric shock, drugs, drowning, smoke, or trauma
-phyxia
pulse
asthma
inflammatory airway disorder that results in attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath that gets worse with exercise or activity, and coughing (with or without sputum)
atelectasis
collapse of lung tissue, which prevents the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and is caused by a variety of conditions, including obstruction of foreign bodies, excessive secretions, or pressure on the lung from a tumor
atel
incomplete, imperfect
bronchitis
acute or chronic inflammation of mucous membranes of the bronchial airways caused by irritation, infection, or both
bronch
bronchus (plural: bronchi)
coryza
acute inflammation of the nasal passages accompanied by profuse nasal discharge

also called a cold
croup
acute respiratory syndrome that occurs primarily in children and infants and is characterized by laryngeal obstruction and spasm, barking cough, and stridor
cystic fibrosis (CF)
genetic disease that is one of the most common types of chronic lung disease in children and young adults and causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract, possibly resulting in early death
fibr
fiber, fibrous tissue
emphysema
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) that makes it difficult to breathe and is characterized by loss of elasticity of the lung tissue that causes the small airways to collapse during forced exhalation
epistaxis
hemorrhage from the nose

also called nosebleed
-staxis
dripping, oozing (of blood)
hypercapnia
greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood
-capnia
carbon dioxide
hypoxemia
deficiency of oxygen in the blood; usually a sign of respiratory impairment
ox
oxygen
hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen in body tissues; usually a sign of respiratory impairment
influenza
acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain
otitis media (OM)
inflammation of the middle ear, commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection (URI) with symptoms of otodynia; may be treated with myringotomy or tympanostomy tubes
ot
ear
med
middle
exudative
otitis media with the presence of fluid, such as pus or serum
pertussis
acute infectious disease characterized by a "whoop"-sounding cough

also called whooping cough
pleurisy
inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by deep breathing or coughing
-isy
state of, condition
pneumothorax
collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity, causing the complete or partial collapse of a lung
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant

also called crib death
arterial blood gases (ABGs)
group of tests that measure the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration in an arterial blood sample
Mantoux test
intradermal test to determine recent or past exposure to tuberculosis
pulmonary function tests (PFTs)
variety of tests used to determine the capacity of the lungs to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide efficiently
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
basic emergency procedure for life support, consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage
endotracheal intubation
procedure in which an airway catheter is inserted through the mouth or nose into the trachea in patients who are unable to breathe on their own or to administer oxygen, medication, or anesthesia
postural drainage
use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities
thoracocentesis
use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space

also called thoracentesis
tracheostomy
incision into the trachea (tracheotomy) and creation of a permanent opening through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to keep the opening patent (accessible or wide open)
bronchodilators
dilate constricted airways by relaxing muscle spasms in the bronchial tubes through oral administration or inhaled via a metered dose inhaler (MDI)
-stomy
forming an opening (mouth)
corticosteroids
suppress the inflammatory reaction that causes swelling and narrowing of the bronchi

anti-inflammatory agents that treat skin inflammation
expectorants
improve the ability to cough up mucus from the respiratory tract
metered-dose inhaler
device that enables the patient to self-administer a specific amount of medication into the lungs through inhalation
nebulized mist treatment (NMT)
method of administering medication directly into the lungs using a device (nebulizer) that produces a fine spray

also called aerosol therapy
What can result from sleep apnea?
- hypoxia
- cognitive impairment
- hypertension
- arrhythmias
What occurs during obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)?
a physical obstruction in the upper airways produces
- recurrent sleep interruptions
- choking and gasping spells on awakening
- drowsiness caused by loss of normal sleep
Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)
a gentle ventilator support used to keep airways open
What does untreated apnea frequently result in?
- central sleep apnea
- pulmonary failure
- cardiac abnormalities
What disorders comprise COPD?
- asthma
- chronic bronchitis
- emphysema
What happens in lungs affected by COPD?
airway passages become clogged with mucus

air reaches the alveoli during inhalation, but may not be able to escape during exhalation
What is the prognosis for COPD?
progressive and irreversible
What can cause COPD?
predisposing factors are:

- smoking
- prolonged exposure to polluted air
- respiratory infections
- allergies
What medications are used to alleviate COPD symptoms?
- bronchodilators
- corticosteroids
polypoid
resembling a polyp
meatus
an opening, especially the external opening of a canal
metastatic
pertaining to a carcinoma that has spread to a distant site
polypectomy
excision of a polyp
snare
wire loop instrument used for excision of polyps
angioplasty
surgical procedure that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery
angi/o
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
arteries
large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
capillaries
microscopic blood vessels joining arterioles and venules
congenital
pertaining to presence of a disorder at the time of birth, which may result from genetic or environmental causes
metabolism
sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism
myocardium
middle layer of the walls of the heart that is composed of cardiac muscle; heart muscle
my/o
muscle
cardi
heart
-um
structure, thing
veins
vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the heart
What types of surgery does a cardiac surgeon perform?
- coronary artery bypass
- angioplasty
- pacemaker insertion
- valve replacement/repair
- heart transplantation
- repairs of congenital heart diseases
What is the main purpose of the CV system?
to deliver oxygen, nutrients, and other essential substances to body cells and remove waste products of cellular metabolism
A heart contraction is known as:
systole
The resting period between contractions when the heart fills with blood is known as:
diastole
aneurysm/o
widening, widened blood vessel
arteri/o
artery
-rrhaphy
suture
ather/o
fatty plaque
atri/o
atrium
coron/o
heart
cardi/o
heart
-megaly
enlargement
phleb/o
vein
ven/o
vein
thromb/o
blood clot
-lysis
separation, destruction, loosening
varic/o
dilated vein
-ose
pertaining to (sugar)
vas/o
vessel, vas deferens, duct
vascul/o
vessel (usually blood or lymph)
ventricul/o
ventricle (of heart or brain)
inter-
between
-cardia
heart condition
-gram
record, writing
electr/o
electricity
-graph
instrument for recording
-graphy
process of recording
-stenosis
narrowing, stricture
endo-
in, within
epi-
above, upon
peri-
around
aneurysm
localized dilation of a blood vessel wall (usually an artery) due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall
angina pectoris
mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia

also called angina
arrhythmia
irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat

also called dysrhythmia
-rrhythm
rhythm
a-
without, not
-ia
condition
fibrillation
irregular, random contraction of heart fibers that commonly occurs in the atria or ventricles of the heart and is usually described by the part that is contracting abnormally, i.e., atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation
What is a fusiform aneurysm?
the entire circumference of the artery dilates
what is a saccular aneurysm?
bulging on only one side of the artery wall
What is a dissecting aneurysm?
tear in the wall of an artery because of bleeding into the weakened wall, which splits the wall

more common in the aorta
arteriosclerosis
thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of arterial walls

also called hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis
most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls, resulting in partial and, eventually, total blockage
bruit
soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent blood flow
embolus
mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque, or air bubble) that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel
embol
plug
-us
condition, structure
heart block
disease of the electrical system of the heart, which controls activity of heart muscle
first-degree heart block
atrioventricular (AV) block in which the atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles
second-degree heart block
AV block in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles
third-degree heart block
AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles

also called complete heart block (CHB)
heart failure (HF)
condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to meet the metabolic requirement of body tissues

formerly called congestive heart failure (CHF)
hypertension (HTN)
consistently elevated blood pressure, causing damage to the blood vessels, and ultimately, the heart
hyper
excessive, above normal
-tension
to stretch
ischemia
inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part due to an interruption of blood flow
isch
to hold back
-emia
blood
mitral valve prolapse (MVP)
structural abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely, resulting in a backflow of blood into the left atrium with each contraciton
murmur
abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart
myocardial infarction (MI)
necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary arteries

also called heart attack
patent ductus arteriosus
failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arch in a fetus) to close after birth, resulting in an abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta
Raynaud disease
severe, sudden vasoconstriction and spasm in fingers and toes followed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress

also called Raynaud phenomenon
rheumatic heart disease
streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults
stroke
damage to part of the brain due to interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or, more commonly, blockage of an artery

also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
thrombus
a stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart, commonly causing vascular obstruction

also called blood clot
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body, occurring most commonly in the iliac and femoral veins
transient ischemic attack (TIA)
blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more serious and debilitating stroke in the future

also called ministroke
cardiac catheterization
insertion of a small tube (catheter) through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach), that is then threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart
cardiac enzyme studies
battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage
echocardiography (ECHO)
ultrasound technique used to image the heart and evaluate how the heart's chambers and valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological conditions
echo-
repeated sound
Holter monitor
monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours) on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities
stress test
electrocardiography (ECG) taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption
nuclear stress test
ECG that utilizes a radioisotope to evaluate coronary blood flow
troponin I
blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle (not skeletal muscle) and is a highly sensitive, specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction (MI)
coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
angioplasty in which peripheral vein(s) are removed and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle
cardioversion
restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying an electrical countershock to the chest using a device called a defibrillator

also called defibrillation
-version
turning
defibrillator
device used to administer a defibrillating electric shock to restore normal heart rhythm
automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD)
surgically implanted electrical device that automatically detects and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmias by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart

also called implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)
automatic external defibrillator (AED)
portable computerized device that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to stimulate a heart in cardiac arrest
endarterectomy
surgical removal of the lining of an artery
carotid endarterectomy
removal of plaque (atherosclerosis) and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke
endovenous laser therapy
treatment of large varicose veins in the legs in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collapse, shrink and eventually disappear

also called endovenous laser ablation (EVLA)
sclerotherapy
chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein
valvuloplasty
insertion of a balloon catheter in a blood vessel in the groin through the aorta and into the heart to widen a stenotic (stiffened) heart valve and increase blood flow

also called percutaneous valvuloplasty
anticoagulants
prevent the clotting or coagulation of blood
beta blockers
slow the heart rate and reduce the force with which the heart muscle contracts, thereby lowering blood pressure
nitrates
relieve chest pain associated with angina and ease symptoms of heart failure (HF)
statins
reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and block production of an enzyme in the liver that produces cholesterol
thrombolytics
dissolve blood clots in a process known as thrombolysis
coronary artery disease
a condition that involves narrowing of the coronary arteries, resulting in failure of the arteries to deliver an adequate supply of oxygenated blood to the heart muscle
arteriostenosis
narrowing of arterial walls, usually caused by atherosclerosis
occlusion
total blockage of an artery
What happens to areas of heart muscle served by a coronary artery that is totally, or almost totally, occluded?
the areas of heart muscle die, causing a myocardial infarction (heart attack)
What surgical treatments are available for CAD?
- angioplasty
- coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)
competent
healthy
varicosities
another name for varicose veins
What causes varicose veins?
dilation of veins from long periods of pressure prevents complete closure of the valves, resulting in a backflow and pooling of blood in the veins; this pooling causes varicosities that contribute to enlarged, twisted superficial veins called varicose veins
incompetent
unhealthy, damaged
What other risk accompanies varicose veins?
the risk of thrombosis
AED
automatic external defibrillator
AICD
automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
ASHD
arteriosclerotic heart disease
BP
blood pressure
CABG
coronary artery bypass graft
CAD
coronary artery disease
CV
cardiovascular
CVA
cerebrovascular accident
costovertebral angle
DVT
deep vein thrombosis
deep venous thrombosis
ECHO
echocardiogram
echocardiography
echoencephalogram
echoencephalography
ECG, EKG
electrocardiogram
electrocardiography
EVLA
endovenous laser ablation
endoluminal laser ablation
EVLT
endovenous laser therapy
endoluminal laser therapy
HDL
high-density lipoprotein
HF
heart failure
HTN
hypertension
ICD
implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
MI
myocardial infarction
MVP
mitral valve prolapse
RV
right ventricle
SVC
superior vena cava
TIA
transient ischemic attack