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44 Cards in this Set

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A drug acts as an agonist for norepinephrine. Such a drug would be expected to __________ the amount of norepinephrine in the synapse.
decrease
Drugs that interfere with reuptake are called _________.
agonists
As blood passes through the liver, drugs diffuse into the liver cells and are metabolized by ________
cytochrome P-450 enzymes
John is a heavy drinker. As a result, he requires more anesthesia than a comparable man of his age and weight in order to be anesthetized. John is showing ___________.
cross tolerance
For a drug to pass rapidly and easily through the capillaries surrounding the brain, it must be ________
highly lipid soluble
All of the following neurotransmitters are taken back into the presynaptic terminal via an active reuptake mechanism, EXCEPT:
a. serotonin
b. acetylcholine
c. dopamine
d. norepinephrine
acetylcholine
The therapeutic index refers to:
the relative safety of the drug
If the rate of metabolism of a drug is independent of its plasma concentration, that rug is said to have _________ kinetics
zero order
Assume that a drug has a high oil.water partition coefficient, e.g. 100. We would expect such a drug to :
a. be highly water soluble
b. accumulate in the brain slowly
c. accumulate in brain rapidly
d. have minimal ability to act on the brain
accumulate in the brain rapidly
Metabolism of a drug refers to the process of :
a. distribution
b. absorption
c. elimination
d. detoxification
d. detoxification
The main route of excretion for drugs is through :
a. renal system
b. hepatic system
c. gastrointestinal tract
d. the lungs
a. renal system
In the simplest form, "pharmacokinetics" describes a drug's:
a. strength
b time course
c. toxicity levels
d. main effects
b. time course
Depot binding refers to the propensity of drugs to bind to sites other than the site of action. To which of the following areas do psychoactive drugs commonly depot bind?
a. albumin in the blood
b. fatty tissues
c. muscles
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
all of the above
A drug that is a weak acid is most ionized and leasy able to pass through biological membranes when it is in a medium with a pH of :
a. 9 (basic)
b. 7 (neutral)
c. none of the above as pH isn't a factor
d. 5 (acidic)
9 (basic)
The membranes that separate fetal blood from maternal blood:
a. are impermeable to water-soluble substances
b. are impermeable to psychoactive drugs
c. are highly permeable to psychoactive drugs
d. are unique in their permeability
c. are highly permeable to psychoactive drugs
The liver sometimes metabolizes a drug by Glucoronic acid to the drug molecule. This form of metabolism is known as:
a, cleavage
b. reduction
c. conjugation
d. oxydation
conjugation
The pharmacokinetics of a drug is affected by:
a. genetics
b. physiological state
c. species
d. only A and C
e. all of the above
All of the above
As the oil/water partition coefficient increases...
a. the more lipid soluble the drug becomes
b. first the lipid solubility increases then ecreases
c. the less lipid soluble the drug becomes
d. first the lipid solubility decreases then increases
a. the more lipid soluble it becomes
Argument used to support the legalization of drugs include:
a. it would raise tax revenue
b. crime would decrease
c. all of the above
d. the drug quality for users would be safer
all of the amove
A drug that binds with and activates a receptor is called a:
a, inverse agonist
b. channel blocker
c. direct agonist
d. antagonist
c. direct agonist
The time to reach "steady state" concentrations of a drug ( the level of drug achieved in blood with repeated, regular interval dosing) is:
a. reached after one elimination half life
b. achieved in approximately six times the drug's elimination half-life
c. dependent upon the actual dosing of drug
d. achieved when the amount of drug administered per unit time is approximately six times the amount eliminated per unite of time.
b. achieved in approximately six times the drug's elimination half-life.
The word pharmakos means
a. a scapegoat
b. a plague
c. drug mechanisms
d. the soul
a. scapegoat
The brain nucleus responsible for producing most of the brain serotonin is:
a. the locus coeruleus
b. raphe nuclei
c. substantial nigra
d. basal ganglia
b. raphe nuclei
A neurotransmitter may bind either a " fast-responding" or "slow responding" receptor. True or False.
True
Tachyphalaxis refers to:
a. the inability of some individuals cannot develop tolerance to a drug
b. the fact that some individuals develop acute tolerance to a drug after very little experience wit hthe drug
c. the fact that some individuals overdose on a drug the first time it is given, even if the dose is very small
d. none of the above
b. the fact that some individuals develop acute tolerance to the drug after very little experience with the drug
John took a drug and 7 hours later after peak plasma equilibrium was reached, 50% of the drug was still circulating in his blood. What is the half-life of the drug?
a. 12 hours
b. 7 hours
c. 3.5 hours
d. 14 hours
b. 7 hours
The most common inhibitory an excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain are, respectively,
a. glutamate and GABA
b. GABA and glutamate
c. NE and GABA
d. NE and 5-HT
b. GABA and glutamate
Once a person becomes physically dependent on a drug:
a. the person will remain forever physically dependent even after stopping administration of the drug
b. after stopping drug administration, the person will still be dependent but will no longer experience the "abstinence syndrome"
c. the person will no longer be physically dependent as soon as the drug administration is terminated
d. the person will no longer be physically dependent usually within a few weeks after stopping administration of the drug
d.
The most dangerous mode of drug administration is:
a. inhalation
b. subcutaneous injection
c. intramuscular injection
d. intravenous injection
d. intravenous injection
Apomorphine is a drug that stimulates dopamine autoreceptors. This drug is therefore:
a. a mixed agonist/antagonist
b. an indirect dopamine agonist
c. a dopamine antagonist
d. a direct dopamine agonist
c. a dopamine antagonist
A give nneurotransmitter is capable of binding more than one receptor. True or False
True
Nicotinic and muscarinic receptors are two types of _______ receptors
a. GABA
b. Acetylcholine
c. norepinephrine
d. dopamine
B. acetylcholine
Historically, the use of psychoactive drugs:
a. is a recent phenomenon
b. is an ancient phenomenon
c. were restrictedto medical practitioners
d. both a and c
e. none of the above
b. is an ancient phenomenon
A drug that deactivates the enzyme acetylcholinesterase acts as a _______.
a. presynaptic receptor blocker
b. postsynaptic receptor blocker
c. agonist
d. antagonist
c. agonist
A drug that increases release of an inhibitory neurotransmitter from terminal buttons is called:
a, an agonist
b. a precursor
c. an antagonist
d. a presynaptic enhancer
a. an agonist
Which of the following is/are important factor(s) in determining drug action?
a, the duration of the drug at the site of action
b. the molecular structure of the drug
c. the concentration of the drug at the site of action
d. all of the above
e. none of the aboce
d. all of the above
Rectal drug administration may be used in place of oral drug administration to avoid:
a. too rapid absorption
b. nausea/vomiting
c. irritation to mucous membranes
d. absorption into the blood stram
b. nausea/vomiting
The the pH of the tubules in the nephron is basic, then a basic drug, non-lipid soluble drug is:
a. less likely to be excreted
b. more likely to be excreted
c. excreted depends on blood supply, not pH
d. unaffected
A. less likely to be excreted
The ability of receptors in the brain to adapt to the continued presence of a drug is termed:
a. physical dependence
b. metabolic tolerance
c. pharmacodynamic tolerance
d. pharmacokinetic tolerance
c. pharmacodynamic tolerance
Psychopharmacology is a systematic study of the effects of drugs on
a. behavior
b. emotions
c. cognitive functions
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
d. all of the aboce
ligand-gated ion channels are _______; G-protein coupled receptors are _________.
a, slow/ionotropic; fast/metabotropic
b. fast/ionotropic; slow/metabotropic
c. slow/metabotropic; fast/ionatropic
d. fast/metabotropic; slow/ionotropic
B
Getting water soluble drugs across biological membranes is difficult because:
a, water soluble drugs ionize
b. " " they do not ionize
c. " "are always small molecules
d. " " they are always large molecules
A. they ionize
A drug must be lipid-soluble to pass through capiallaries surrounding the brain. True or False
False
Which of the following describes a drug action?
a. amphetamine causes sweating
b. cocaine causes increased heart rate
c. fluoxetine blocks the transport protein in serotonin neurons
d. delta-p-THC causes hunger
Fluoxetine blocks the transport protein in serotonin neurons