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48 Cards in this Set

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Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older stumptail macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of:
Observational Learning
Lauries thumbsucking has become habitual because she begins to feel less anxious whenever she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of:
Classical Conditioning
After he was spanked on several occasions by his mother for spilling his milk, Colin developed a strong fear of his mother. In this case, spanking is a ___________ for Colin's fear
Conditioned Stimulus
Which of the following is an unconditioned response?
Sweating in hot weather
Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits ______ violence that causes ______ visible pain or harm
Unjustified; no
Four year old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. Although at one time her mother granted every request, she now does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will:
come to ask for a treat every time
In order to assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimers disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a
conditioned stimulus
Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bedwetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he has the urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate:
generalization
The removal of electric shock is to good grades as ______ is to ________
primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcement
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of:
discrimination
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is:
positive reinforcement
Pavlov attached miniature vibrators to various parts of a dogs body in order to demonstrate the process of
conditioned stimulus
B.F. Skinners work elaborated what E.L Thorndike has called:
The Law of Effect
Paul and Michael sell magazine subscriptions by telephone. Paul is paid $1 for every five calls he makes, while Michael is paid $1 for every subscription he sells, regardless of the number of calls he makes. Pauls telephoning is reinforced on a ________ schedule, whereas Michaels is reinforced on a ________ schedule
Fixed-Ratio; Variable-Interval
Smoking, excessive drinking, and drug abuse demonstrate our greater responsiveness to _______ reinforcement than to ________ reinforcement
immediate; delayed
A child's fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a
conditioned response
Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to
preach the values of cleanliness but no practice cleanliness
Operant behavior is to _______ associations as respondent behavior is to _______ associations
response stimulus; stimulus-stimulus
John B. Watson would have expressed the greatest disapproval of attempts to scientifically study whether
academic acheivement is influenced by a positive self-concept
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presently shortly _______ an appropriate _______
before; UCS
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was the
conditioned stimulus
A person adhering to the cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on
an organisms expectation that a UCS will follow a conditioned stimulus
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a __________ schedule of reinforcement
variable-ratio
Rates of operant responding are _________ for fixed ratio than for fixed interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules
higher; higher
Research on the use of addictive drugs indicates that
many people are able to stop using morphine without professional help
Women are most likely to overestimate the negative impact of the menstrual cycle on their mood because
evidence that confirms ones preconceptions is easily remembered
Evidence that highly hypnotizable people are no more successful than others at simultaneously reading a book and listening to music would most clearly challenge
the dissociation theory
The theory that dreams help to solidify our memories of daytime experiences is supported by the finding that
people deprived of REM sleep remember less of certain pre-sleep information than people deprived of other sleep stages
Research studies of the contect of dreams indicate that
people are more likely to dream of failure then success
Soon after taking a psychoactive drug, Zachary experienced a diminished appetite, an increased pulse rate, dilated pupils and feelings for self-confidence and euphoria. Zachary most likely experienced the effects of
cocaine
Which of the following is bad advice for a person trying to overcome insomnia?
drink a glass of wine 15 before bedtime
The best indication that dreaming serves a necessary biological function is provided by the fact that
cats and monkeys experience REM rebound
One of the immediate effects of ecstasy is:
dehydration
Orne and Evans discovered that unhypnotized subjects performed the same dangerous acts as hypnotized subjects. This finding is most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves:
conscious role playing
When hypnosis is used to induce deafness, the hidden observer is likely to be _______ to auditory stimulation.
When hypnosis is used to induce blindness, the hidden observer is likely to be _______ to visual stimulation
sensitive; sensitive
Night Terrors
occur during the first few hours of sleep
At 1:00am, Luis gets out of bed and begins to sleepwalk. An EEG of his brain activity is most likely to indicate the presence of:
delta waves
When cocaine is snorted, free-based, or injected, it produces a rush of euphoria by:
blocking the reuptake of dopamine
In Robert True's study, hypnotized subjects correctly reported the day of the week on which their fourth, seventh and tenth birthdays occured. This experiment illustrated that:
hypnotists can subtly influence the memory of their subjects
Experiments in which hypnotize individuals have been encouraged to perform apparently dangerous acts best illustrate that
people are susceptible to destructiive social influences
Joans dentist used hypnosis when he filled a deep cavity. Joan insisted that she felt no pain, but when the dentist asked her to raise her hand if some part of her could feel the pain, she raised her hand. This supports the theory that hypnosis involves:
dissociation
The most rapic increase in drug tolerance is likely to be experienced by the regular user of
heroin
After a stresful day at the office, Arthur has five or six drinks at a local bar before going home for dinner. Research suggests that Arthur's heavy drinking will have the most adverse effect on his ability to remember
the next day the names of people he talked to and what he said while he was drinking
In Hilgards studies of pain sensitivity, the hidden observer reported experiences typically associated with
normal consciousness
At least two dimensions you should consider when using drugs are
addictive potential and toxicity
According to Skinner, "freedom" is
the freedom to avoid adverse consequences
Whats the name of this class?
Introductory Psychology
In explaining juvenile delinquency, B.F. Skinner would most likely have emphasized
faulty child-rearing practices