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183 Cards in this Set

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behavior modification
involves change in behavior by the use of rewards or reinforecers (operant conditioning)pg 668
Behavior Therapies
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors (uses classical conditioning and operant conditioning techniques)pg 665
behaviorisn
John B. Watson/ the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not (2)
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. (Also called pavlovian conditioning)
Conditioned Response (CR)
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS). example: salvation to tone(CS)
Acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.
Conditioning
the process of learning associations
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs
discrimination
in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
variable interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals. example:pop quizzes, arrival of mail
variable ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
example: slot machines, fishing
shaping
an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal.
chaining
taking all of the successive approximations and chaining them together
successive approximations
method of guiding an animal toward a desired behavior by rewarding responses that are closer to the final desired behavior
extinction
The behavior stops when the CS no longer introduces the UCS. (The dog no longer salivates to the sound of the bell since no food is presented with the bell.)
fixed interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed example:semester grades, monthly paychecks
fixed ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforecement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. example:commission sales, factory quotas.
Flooding
Behavior modification therapy technique in which you expose someone to harmless stimuli which they fear
Latent Learning
learning that occurs, but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
Law of Effect
Thorndikes principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Learned Helplessness
the hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events. pg 602
generalization
the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
higher order conditioning
Example of Pavlov experiment: Later experiments made the dog salivate with a buzzer, a light, a sight of a circle
Unconditioned response
unlearned, reflexive, naturally occuring response to the UCS (salivation)
unconditioned stimulus
stimulus that unconditionally, automatically and naturally, triggers a response (food)
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.
respondent behavior (CC)
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; skinner's term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.
operant behavior (OC)
behavior that operates on the enviromment, producing consequences.
phobia
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrationaly fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation. pg 628
conditioned/secondary reinforcer
a stimulus that gains it reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer
Positive reinforcement
a positive reward for good behavior (a piece of candy for buckling seatbelt)
Reinforcer
encourages desirable behavior
negative reinforcement
removing a negative stimulus to encourage good behavior (The buzzing sound stops when you buckle the seatbelt)
primary reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need
Positive Punishment
administer an aversive stimulus (spanking, a parking ticket)
negative punishment
withdraw a desirable stimulus (time out from privileges such as TV)
Overjustification Effect
The effect of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. The person may now see the reward, rather than intrinsic interest, as the motivation for performing the task.
observational learning
learning by observing others (example: Bandura's Bobo doll experiment.)
Modeling
the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior
Prosocial Behavior
imitating positive behaviors
Antisocial Behavior
imitating negative behaviors
operant chamber/ skinner box
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking. used in operant conditioning ressearch.
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment. For example, after exploring a maze, rats act as if they have learned a cognitive map of it.
mirror neuron
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation, language learning, and empathy.
Stimulus Contiguity
occur together in space (place) and time
Spontaneous Recovery
reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished CR
Renewal Effect
If a response is extinguished in different environment than acquired, response will reappear in original envioronment
Systematic Desensitization
teaching someone relaxation techniques then gradually exposing them to the feared stimulus as their level of relaxation increases. EX: slowly moving a jar with a spider in it closer
Counterconditioning
pairing an unpleasant stimulus with an enjoyable stimulus EX: giving a child scared of a dog a twinkie every time he plays with a dog
Single Blind
a specific research procedure in which the researchers (and those involved in the study) do not tell the participants if they are being given a test treatment or a control treatment. This is done in order to ensure that participants don't bias the results by acting in ways they "think" they should act. For example, if a participant believed they were in the group that received a sleeping drug, they may report that they are tired because they believe they "should be tired" since they're in the sleeping drug group.
Double Blind Study
This is one type of experimental procedure in which both the patient and the staff are ignorant (blind) as to the condition (or group) that the participant is in. This would make it impossible for the participant or researcher to know if the participant is receiving the treatment (for example a drug) or a placebo. This type of design is commonly used in drug evaluation studies, and is used to prevent the researchers from acting differently to people in one group, or from giving the participant any information that could make them act and/or behave unnaturally.
Control Group
During many experiments, researchers often include treatment groups (the groups that are given the treatment/IV) and a control group, which is identical to the treatment group in every single way except that the control group does not get the treatment/IV. In this way, the researcher can study effect(s) of the treatment thoroughly. For example, if I am studying the effects of 2 different pain medications of headaches, I may give people who have headaches (the treatment groups) either Tylenol or Bayer (these are the levels of the IV). I can then wait one hour and ask participants to rate the level of pain they are experiencing. If the amount of pain in one group goes down significantly more than the other, I may conclude that one medication is more effective than the other in reducing headache pain. However, I can't say that either are more effective than giving nothing at all. Maybe there was a placebo effect, and simply getting a pill made people believe their pain was reduced. So, I could include another group - a control group - which is treated and exposed to everything the other groups are except that they are given a placebo (maybe a sugar pill) instead of either Tylenol or Bayer.
Correlation Coefficient
This is a measure of the direction (positive or negative) and extent (range of a correlation coefficient is from -1 to +1) of the relationship between two sets of scores. Scores with a positive correlation coefficient go up and down together (as with smoking and cancer). A negative correlation coefficient indicates that as one score increases, the other score decreases (as in the relationship between self-esteem and depression; as self-esteem increases, the rate of depression decreases).
Correlation
A correlation is a statistical index used to represent the strength of a relationship between two factors, how much and in what way those factors vary, and how well one factor can predict the other. Using correlations does NOT (I repeat, does not) provide you with cause and effect information; it will not tell you if one factor causes or is caused by the other. This fact was an important component in the court cases against the tobacco companies that occurred in the late 1990's. The studies conducted previously on the effects of smoking indicated a positive correlation between smoking and cancer. This means that the studies found that as the rate of smoking increased, so did the occurrence of cancer; smoking goes up, presence of cancer goes up. BUT, this does not demonstrate that smoking causes cancer (does anyone disagree that it does?), only that there is a relationship between the two factors.
independent variable (IV)
In an experiment there are two variables; the Independent Variable (IV) and the Dependent Variable (DV). In the most basic sense, you need two variables because as a researcher, you want to be able to examine if something (a drug, a therapy, a teaching technique, whatever) has an effect on some participant (person, people, animals, etc.). To accomplish this, you need to have something to examine (and manipulate -- this is the IV); some variable of interest, as well as something to measure the effect the IV has (this is the DV). Therefore, we can define the independent variable as the experimental variable or variable that is manipulated by the research and has some effect on the DV. If there is a change or effect, we may conclude that the IV affected the DV. The ultimate here is to establish that the IV caused the change in the DV (this is the magical "cause-effect"). As a quick example, if you want to study the effect of drinking 12 ounces of beer before an exam on exam performance, the beer would be the IV (we may have one treatment group whose participants drink the beer and one control group who does not drink the beer); the performance on the exam would be the DV.
dependent variable (DV)
the experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process- that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
experimental group/condition
To determine what effect an independent variable (IV) or treatment may have on some measure, it is necessary to present that IV to members of a group or condition. The participants who are presented the IV are considered the experimental condition. For example, if I am studying the effects of 2 different pain medications of headaches, I may give people who have headaches either Tylenol or Bayer (the treatment groups; thus in this example there are two levels of the IV; one level is Tylenol, the other is Bayer, but both are part of the experimental condition). I can then wait one hour and ask participants to rate the level of pain they are experiencing (this would be the dependent variable or measure). If the amount of pain in one group goes down significantly more than the other, I may conclude that one medication is more effective than the other in reducing headache pain.
experimental method
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one of more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors. UNLIKE CORRELATIONAL STUDIES, WHICH UNCOVER NATURALLY OCCURRING RELATIONSHIPS, AN EXPERIMENT MANIPULATES A FACTOR TO DETERMINE ITS EFFECT.
experimenter bias
Expectations of an outcome may inadvertently influence participant or cause the experimenter to view data in a different way.
variable
Any characteristic that can assume multiple values or can vary in participants. Variables can include age, gender, body weight, alcohol consumption, attitude and many, many other attributes. Related terms included Independent and Dependent variables.
theory
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
response bias
a type of statistical bias which can affect the results of a statistical survey if respondents answer questions in the way they think the questioner wants them to answer rather than according to their true beliefs.
selection bias
Errors in the selection and placement of subjects into groups that results in differences between groups which could effect the results of an experiment (not representative of the population)
sampling bias
A sample is biased if some members of the population are more likely to be chosen in the sample than others. A biased sample will generally give you a misestimate of the quantity being estimated. For example, if your sample contains member with a higher or lower value of the quantity being estimated, the outcome will be higher or lower than the true value.
psychiatrist
A psychiatrist is different from a psychologist in that a psychiatrist has a medical degree (as opposed to a PhD) and can prescribe medications.
hypothesis
a testable prediction, often implied by a theory
positive correlation
is a direct relationship where as the amount of one variable increases, the amount of a second variable also increases (perfect positive correlation is +1.00)
negative correlation
as the amount of one variable goes up, the levels of another variable go down. (perfect negative correlation is -1.00)
population
When conducting research there are lots of factors to consider. Psychologists may want to study, for example, the effect of some new test on all college students, but this is obviously not possible. Instead, what they do is test on a sample or a smaller group of college students. In this example, everyone who could possibly be a participant in the study (meaning, all college students) is part of the population. College students would be the population the researcher wants to study and from which they select a sample. (all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn)
placebo
any substance that is not known to have any pharmacological effects (produces no meaningful changes in an oranism, either chemical, biological, etc.) that is made to look like an active ("real") drug
placebo effect
experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effeect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent. A placebo is any substance that is not known to have any pharmacological effects (produces no meaningful changes in an oranism, either chemical, biological, etc.) that is made to look like an active ("real") drug. Sometimes the act of taking a pill produces an effect if the person believes the pill is active. To compensate for this, scientists often give placebos to determine if an effect is due to the "real" drug or from the act of just taking a pill.
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes/ The study of an organism's thoughts, feelings, and behavior and how these processes are effected by the environment, physical states, and mental states. The questions that psychology tries to answer are often complex and concern many different variables.
random assignment
Random assignment of participants to experimental conditions is a commonly used experimental technique to help ensure that the treatment group and the control group are the same before treatment. For example, let us assume that we're curious to know the effects of eating an apple a day on your health (measured by blood pressure). One way of designing the study would be to select a sample of people and divide them into a control group (i.e., those who don't have an apple a day) and a treatment group (i.e., those who do have an apple a day). How do you decide to divide your subjects? The best way is to do it randomly in order to cancel out the idiosyncrasies of your subject pool. Imagine if you decided to choose the groups based on cholesterol intake. You decide to have the low cholesterol group in the control group and the high cholesterol group in the treatment group. Would this bias the results of your study? Yes. Since cholesterol affects blood pressure, you as an experimenter would not know if the changes in health were due to the apple a day or the amount of cholesterol intake. (minimiizes the preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Measures of variation/dispersion
How similar or diverse the scores are. Low variablity is more reliabe than high variability. (range and standard deviation)
Range
A statistical measure of variance. It is calculated by subtracting the lowest score from the highest score and then adding one (i.e., range = (highest score - lowest score) +1). For example, let us say that the highest score in an introduction psychology course was a 98 and the lowest score was a 43. The range would be 56. (the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution)
standard deviation
Standard Deviation is a measure of variation (or variability) that is a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. Looking at an example will help us make sense of this.

Assume a professor is interested in the satisfaction of students in her psychology class. She decides to survey the students by asking them to rate the class from one to five. From the surveys, she calculates the average score to be three. From this she can assume that people's satisfaction was average. Wanting to know more she decides to calculate the standard deviation and finds it to be equal to two--meaning, the amount of variability between the numbers was 2. This means that most scores were either a one or a five (thus producing the average of three), showing that students were either very satisfied with her class or very dissatisfied with her class (they gave ratings of 1 or 5 most frequently). By obtaining a measure of variability, she was able to understand more about how people felt with the class than she would of with just an average score. This is one of the reasons why standard deviation (and variability) is so important.
innate
we are born with the knowledge (some ideas are inborn) believed by socrates and plato, opposing aristotle and john locke who believed the mind is a blank state
mean
A measure of central tendency which is more commonly known as an "average." The average or mean is calculated by adding all scores and then dividing by the number of scores. For example, the mean of 3, 5, and 1 is 3.
mode
A measure of central tendency which is defined by the most common number in an array. For example, the following string of numbers: 1, 3, 3, 3, 56, 89, 89; the mode in this case would be 3 since it is the most frequent number observed in the sample.
median
A measure of central tendency that is defined as the midpoint in an array of numbers. The median for 1, 6, 102, 1000 and 1,323 would be 102. If the array has an uneven number of scores, the midpoint is the average of the two numbers closest to the middle. For example, for the array 1, 2, 3, 4, the median would be 2.5.
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles. They may sometimes mislead us though because an individual may be atypical.
illusory correlation
(the perception of a relationship where none exists) Sometimes people believe there is some relationship between events, variables, etc., even though none really exists. This is known as the illusory correlation and it occurs in everyday life as well as science. For example, you may have had some experiences with lawyers, some good, some not so good. It is possible that you only recall the bad experiences (maybe where you felt as though you were lied to by the lawyers) which leads you to formulate the conclusion that all lawyers are liars. Thus, you could come to associate (wrongly?) lawyers with lying, and conclude that all lawyers are liars.
scattorplot
a graphed clustor of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation (little scatter indicates high correlation).
statistical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance, in short, when the sample averages are reliable and the difference between them is relatively large)

This is a very important and common term in psychology, but one that many people have problems with. Technically, statistical significance is the probability of some result from a statistical test occurring by chance. The point of doing research and running statistical analyses on data is to find truth. In order to do this, you have to take lots of steps to make sure you set up good experiments, use good measures, measure the correct variables, etc…and you have to determine if the findings you get occurred because you ran a good study or by some fluke. Most often, psychologists look for a probability of 5% or less that the results are do to chance, which means a 95% chance the results are "not" due to chance. When you hear that the results of an experiment were stastically significant, it means that you can be 95% sure the results are not due to chance…this is a good thing. :>)
ethical guidelines
(1)informed consent
(2)protect from harm and discomfort
(3)confidentiality
(4)debrief:fully explain research afterwards
APA
Started by G. Stanley Hall; American Psychological Association that developed ethical principles
survey
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them. *An important validity of survey research is the wording of questions
false consensus effect
the tendency to overestimate others' agreement with us
Measures of Central Tendency
summarize the data using (mode, mean, or median)
Psychology's Perspectives (7+)
Psychologists view behavior and mental processes from various perspectives. These viewpoints are complementary, not contradictory, and each offers useful insights in the study of behavior and mental processes.
(1)Neuroscience
(2)Evolutionary
(3)Behavior genetics
(4)Psychodynamic
(5)Behavioral
(6)Cognitive
(7)Social-cultural
(8)Humanitarism
****View Chart Page 11*****
3 Big Issues
(1)Nature vs. Nurture
-->inherited trait vs. experience/environment
(2)Stability vs. Change
-->Are we creatures of habit or can we change?
(3)Rationality vs. Irrationality
-->are we rational?
Basic Research
(pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base)
As opposed to applied research, basic research is conducted with the intent of increasing the scientific knowledge base, and to find theoretical truth and understanding (not specifically to solve practical problems). For example, someone conducting basic research on cheating behavior may design a study examining whether students from divorced families cheat more often than students not from divorced families. Notice that the research is not done to reduce cheating, help people who cheat, or any other "applied" aspect, but to increase the understanding of cheating behavior.
Applied Research
(scientific study that aims to solve practical problems) As opposed to basic research, applied research is the type of research which is conducted to solve practical problems, find cures to illnesses, develop therapies with the purpose of helping people, and other similar types of practical problem-solving research.
Dualism
Dualism is the presumption proposed by Descartes that the human mind and body are two distinct entities that interact with each other to make a person. Descartes reasoned that the mind and the body communicate with each other through a small structure at the base of the brain called the pineal gland.
Monism
The belief of Aristotle and Augustine that the mind and body are connected
Agonist
A drug that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by the cell. An agonist often mimics the action of a naturally occurring substance.

An agonist produces an action.
Antagonist
In biochemistry, an antagonist acts against and blocks an action. For example, insulin lowers the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood, whereas another hormone called glucagon raises it; therefore, insulin and glucagon are antagonists.
Action Potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of the channels in the axon's membrane.
cell body/soma
The cell's life support center
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Refractory Period
The period of rest during which a new nerve impulse cannot be activated in a segment of an axon.
Resting Pause
(positive outside/negative inside state)
The polarization of cellular fluid within a neuron, which provides the capability to produce an action potential.
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next...degeneration of myelin sheath results in multiple sclerosis
Synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiveing neuron.
Synaptic gap or cleft
The tiny gat at the synapse or junction
reuptake
excess neurotransmitters that are reabsorbed by the sending neuron
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bing to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
acetylcholine (ACh)
a neurotransmitter that triggers muscle contracion, learning and memory (an undersupply causes Alzheimer's disease)
Dopamine
neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention and emotion (excess causes schizophrenia, lack of causes tremors and parkinsons disease)
Serotonin
neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal (undersupply causes depression)
norepinephrine
neurotransmitter that helps control alertness and arousal (undersupply can depress mood)
GABA
neurotransmitter that is a major inhibitory (undersupply linked to tremors, seizures and insomnia)
Glutamate
A major excitatory neurotransmitter;invoved in memory (oversupply can overtimulate brain, producing migraines or seizures)
Endorphins
"morphine within"- natural opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
curare
a poison that occupies and blocks ACh receptor sites, leaving the neurotransmitter unable to affect the muscles
Botulin
a poison that causes paralysis by blocking ACh release from the sending neuron
Axon
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands.
nervous system
the body's speedy, electrochimical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
central nervous system (CNS)
formed by the brain and spinal cord
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body. Includes autonomic and somatic subgroups
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the central nervous system
interneurons
CNS neurons that internally communicate and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
motor nuerons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the bodys skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs Its sympathetic division arouse; its parasympathetic division calms.
sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizingits energy in stressful situations.
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body,conserving its energy.
reflex
a simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response
EEG
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brains surface.
CT/CAT scan
a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice throught the body
PET scan
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task
MRI
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images that distinguish amogn different types of soft tissue, allows us to see structures within the brain.
fMRI
detects blodd rushing to the back of the brain
GO TO LOWER LEVEL BRAINSTEM FLASHCARDS
GO TO LOWER LEVEL BRAINSTEM FLASHCARDS
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by the left hemisphere damage to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernickes area (impairing understanding)
Brocas area
controls language expression- an area of the frontal lobe, usually in the left hemisphere, that directs the muscle movements involved in speech
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression
plasticity
the brains capacity for modification
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
adrenal glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. they secrete the hormones ephinephrine and norepinephrine which help to arouse the body in times of stress
pituitary gland
the endocrine systems most influential gland. under the influence of the hypothalamus the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
bottom up processing
anaysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brains integration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher level mental processes
psychophysics
the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, andour psychological experience of them
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a fain stimulus
Motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
Drive
an aroused tension state
Drive-reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism
Instinct Theory
influenced by Darwin explaining behavior as instinct (complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned)
Hierarchy Of Needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
Homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood gulcose, around a particular level
Intrinsic Motivation
motivated by values such as promotion of self-esteem, satisfying relations, and fulfillment of potential vs. extrinsic motives such as money.
Industrial/Organization Psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Arousal Theory
We seek optimal arousal (stimulation but not too much which causes stress...perfect classload)
-->biorhythms cycle through arousal
-->some motivated behaviors increase arousal...curiosity satifies drive and causes a new drive
Self Actualization
Need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential (at the top of Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs)
Sexual Orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own sex (homeosexual orientation) or the other sex (heterosexual orientation)
Set Point
the point at which an individuals "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
Lateral Hypothalamus
brings on hunger--it churns out orexin
Ventromedial Hypothalamus
depresses hunger
Ghrelin
Hormone secreted by empty stomach; sends I'm hungry signals to the brain
Insulin
Hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose
Leptin
protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger
Orexin
Hunger-triggering hormone secreted by Lateral hypothalamus
PYY
Disgestive tract hormone; sends I'm NOT hungry signals to the brain
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly (15% or more) underweight, yet still feeling fat, continues to starve.
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise.
sexual response cycle
the four stages of sexual responding desribed by Masters and Johnson
-->excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
refractory period
a resting period after orgasm, during which a man cannot achieve another orgasm.
Male sexual disorders
-->pre-mature ejaculation
-->erectial disfunction
Female sexual disorder
Infrequent of lack of orgasm
flow
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminshed awareness of self and time, resuling from optimal engagement of one's skills
interviewer illusion
an interviewers judgements are weak
Structured Interviews
asks same job relevant questions of all applicants
Achievement Motivation (AchM)
a desire for significant accomplishment: for mastery of things, people, or ideas; for attainfing a high standard
Task Leadership
goal oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
Theory X
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money and thus, should be directed from above
Theory Y
assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity.