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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Critical Thinking
The process of assessing claims or assertions and making judgements about them on the basis of well supported evidence.
5-step process
1. What am i being asked to believe or accept? What is the hypothesis?
2. What evidence is available to support the assertion? Is it reliable and valid?
3. Are their alternative ways of interpreting the evidence?
4. What additional evidence would help to evaluate the alternatives?
5. What conclusions are most reasonable based on the evidence and the number of alternative explanations?
testable propositon
Operational Definition
used to describe the methods used and the behaviors studied in the research
Something that takes on different values that can be measured or counted
An integrated set of tentative explanations of behavior and mental processes. Constantly formulated, evalutated, revised, and evaluated again.
Four scientific goals
1. Describe the phenomenon by gathering information about it
2. Make predictions and formulate hypotheses about the phenomenon
3. control variables to eliminate alternative hypotheses and establish cause and effect
4. Explain the phenomenon
important process used to select subjects for an experiment
random sample
if every population member has an equal chance of being chosen for the study
biased sample
if every population member does not have an equal chance of being chosen for the study
Naturalistic Observation
observation without interference of a phenomenon as it occurs in its natural enviornment
Case Studies
An intensive examination of a phenomemnon in a particular individual, group, or situation, often combining observations, inverviews, tests, and analyses of written records
involve asking people questions, in interviews or questionnaires, in order to obtain descriptions of behavior, attitudes, beliefs, opinions, and intentions
extablish cause-effect relationships between variables and to help them choose among alternative hypotheses to explain a given phenomenon
Independent Variable
manipulated or controlled by the researcher
dependent variable
the measurment of the consequences
experimental group
experiences the independent variable
control group
recieves no treatment, thus providing a baseline against which to compare the experimental group
confounding variables
uncontrolled factors that might have affected the dependent variable
rabdom variables
uncontrolled factors such as differences in subjects' backgrounds, personalities, health, and so on that might confound research results
random assignment
how subjects are assigned to experimental and control groups to reduce the impact of random variables on the results
a treatment that contains no active ingredient but produces a change in the dependent variable