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20 Cards in this Set

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random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in natural occuring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
correlation coefficient
a statistical of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other
scatterplot
a graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The amount of scatter suggest the strenght of the correlation
illusory correlation
the preception of a relationship where none exists
experiment
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process. By random assignment of particpants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
double-blind procedure
an expirmental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have recieved the treatment or placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies
placebo effect
expiermental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent
expirmental condition
the condition of an expirment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is one version of the independant variable
control condition
the condition of an expirment that contrasts with the expirmental condition and serves as a comparision for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assingning participants to expirmental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independant variable
the expirmental factor that is being manipulated; the variable whos effect is being studied
dependant variable
the expirmental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process-that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independant variable
mode
the most frequently occuring score in a distribution
mean
the arithmetic average of distribution; obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the total number of scores
median
the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half the scores are below it
range
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distributon
standard diviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score
statistical significance
a statical statment of how likely it is that an obtained result occured by chance
culture
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group and transmitted from one generation to the next.