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279 Cards in this Set

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1. The transitional process that ends childhood is called _______.
The transitional process that ends childhood is called (PUBERTY).
2. The first menstrual period is called ________ and usually occurs between the ages of 9 and 15.
The first menstrual period is called (MENARCHE) and usually occurs between the ages of 9 and 15.
3. An event usually taken to signify the beginning of reproductive potential in boys is __________. It can occur during sleep or through direct stimulation.
An event usually taken to signify the beginning of reproductive potential in boys is (SPERMARCHE). It can occur during sleep or through direct stimulation.
4. A confluence of hormonal activity known as the ___ ____ is crucial to triggering puberty.
A confluence of hormonal activity known as the (HPA AXIS) is crucial to triggering puberty.
5. The term gonads refers to the sex glands, that is, the ______ in the male and the _______ in the female.
The term gonads refers to the sex glands, that is, the (TESTES) in the male and the (OVARIES) in the female.
6. In the male, the first invisible signs of puberty are a dramatic increase in the hormone ____________ and a slight increase in the hormone _________.
In the male, the first invisible signs of puberty are a dramatic increase in the hormone (TESTOSTERONE) and a slight increase in the hormone (ESTRADIOL).
7. Girls are approximately _ years ahead of boys in height.
Girls are approximately (2) years ahead of boys in height.
8. Megan, age 12, has recently noticed a dip in her appetite and attributes it to “being in love.” Megan has likely experienced a shift in the hormone ______, which appears to predominantly affect appetite and female hormones.
Megan, age 12, has recently noticed a dip in her appetite and attributes it to “being in love.” Megan has likely experienced a shift in the hormone (LEPTIN), which appears to predominantly affect appetite and female hormones.
9. Those girls who develop _______ than their friends tend to have lower self-esteem than peers.
Those girls who develop (EARLIER) than their friends tend to have lower self-esteem than peers.
10. Poor nutrition and dieting and insecurity about the way one looks in adolescence can be attributed to one's ____ _____.
Poor nutrition and dieting and insecurity about the way one looks in adolescence can be attributed to one's (BODY IMAGE).
11. The condition characterized by self-starvation is known as ________ or ________ _______.
The condition characterized by self-starvation is known as (ANOREXIA or ANOREXIA NERVOSA).
12. The feature characteristic of _______ _______ involves overeating compulsively followed by purging via vomiting or through the use of laxatives.
The feature characteristic of (BULIMIA NERVOSA) involves overeating compulsively followed by purging via vomiting or through the use of laxatives.
13. In a 2008 survey, it was revealed that _ percent of high school students consumed diet drugs.
In a 2008 survey, it was revealed that (6) percent of high school students consumed diet drugs.
14. One family practice that appears to reduce the risk of adolescent eating disorders is ______ ________.
One family practice that appears to reduce the risk of adolescent eating disorders is (EATING TOGETHER).
15. Breast development and voice change during adolescence are examples of changes involving the _________ sex characteristics.
Breast development and voice change during adolescence are examples of changes involving the (SECONDARY) sex characteristics.
16. “STI” stands for ________ ___________ _________.
“STI” stands for (SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTION).
17. Child sexual abuse is defined as any sexual activity that occurs between a juvenile and a person over the age of __.
Child sexual abuse is defined as any sexual activity that occurs between a juvenile and a person over the age of (18).
18. The ______ ______ reaches final maturation before the cortex, putting adolescents at increased risk for emotional problems and disorders.
The (LIMBIC SYSTEM) reaches final maturation before the cortex, putting adolescents at increased risk for emotional problems and disorders.
19. As a result of the development of the ______ ______ or ________ before development of the prefrontal cortex, adolescents are generally ruled more by emotion than logic.
As a result of the development of the (LIMBIC SYSTEM or AMYGDALA) before development of the prefrontal cortex, adolescents are generally ruled more by emotion than logic.
20. The creativity that is often so characteristic of adolescence may, in part, be attributed to the underdeveloped __________ ______ part of the brain.
The creativity that is often so characteristic of adolescence may, in part, be attributed to the underdeveloped (PREFRONTAL CORTEX) part of the brain.
21. To help explain the illogic of many young adolescents, developmentalist David Elkind advanced the concept of adolescent ___________.
To help explain the illogic of many young adolescents, developmentalist David Elkind advanced the concept of adolescent (EGOCENTRISM).
22. A survivor of a Nazi concentration camp writes that as a teenager in the camp he took large risks, never considering the consequences of being caught and ignoring the advice of others. His behavior can, in part, be explained by the _____________ fable of adolescence.
A survivor of a Nazi concentration camp writes that as a teenager in the camp he took large risks, never considering the consequences of being caught and ignoring the advice of others. His behavior can, in part, be explained by the (INVINCIBILITY) fable of adolescence.
23. Drake, an adolescent, drank six energy drinks in 3 minutes. Even though he started to experience heart palpitations, he knew he would not suffer any ill effects. His certainty resulted from his _____________ _____.
Drake, an adolescent, drank six energy drinks in 3 minutes. Even though he started to experience heart palpitations, he knew he would not suffer any ill effects. His certainty resulted from his (INVINCIBILITY FABLE).
24. Demonstrating their adolescent egocentrism, young adolescents consider themselves to be uniquely _______.
Demonstrating their adolescent egocentrism, young adolescents consider themselves to be uniquely (SPECIAL).
25. Lilly sang off-key at her high-school musical audition. She couldn't believe it when she was not given the leading role. Her _________ ________ (or ___________) prompted her to think her singing was better than it actually was.
Lilly sang off-key at her high-school musical audition. She couldn't believe it when she was not given the leading role. Her (IMAGINARY AUDIENCE [or EGOCENTRISM]) prompted her to think her singing was better than it actually was.
26. An adolescent girl suffers great discomfort at having to go to math class with wet hair after her swimming class, because she feels that all eyes are on her. This girl, like many adolescents, is responding to a(n) _________ ________, which she supposes will judge her appearance harshly.
An adolescent girl suffers great discomfort at having to go to math class with wet hair after her swimming class, because she feels that all eyes are on her. This girl, like many adolescents, is responding to a(n) (IMAGINARY AUDIENCE), which she supposes will judge her appearance harshly.
27. Piaget referred to the stage of cognitive development that involves the ability to think logically about abstract ideas as ______ ___________ _______.
Piaget referred to the stage of cognitive development that involves the ability to think logically about abstract ideas as (FORMAL OPERATIONAL THOUGHT).
28. When thinking about possibilities that may or may not reflect reality, an adolescent is using ____________ thought.
When thinking about possibilities that may or may not reflect reality, an adolescent is using (HYPOTHETICAL) thought.
29. In _________ reasoning, one begins with a general premise and draws logical, specific conclusions from it.
In (DEDUCTIVE) reasoning, one begins with a general premise and draws logical, specific conclusions from it.
30. _________ reasoning involves using specific experiences to form a general conclusion.
(INDUCTIVE) reasoning involves using specific experiences to form a general conclusion.
31. The statement, “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck,” is an example of _________ _________.
The statement, “If it walks like a duck and quacks like a duck, it must be a duck,” is an example of (INDUCTIVE REASONING).
32. _________ thought arises not from a logical premise, but from memories and feelings.
(INTUITIVE) thought arises not from a logical premise, but from memories and feelings.
33. Two parallel modes of information processing advance during adolescence. One mode is analytic thought and the other mode is _________ _______.
Two parallel modes of information processing advance during adolescence. One mode is analytic thought and the other mode is (INTUITIVE THOUGHT).
34. Luis is in the 7th grade. Most likely, he is attending a(n) ______ school.
Luis is in the 7th grade. Most likely, he is attending a(n) (MIDDLE) school.
35. Middle school children who are aggressive tend to be _______ (or _______).
Middle school children who are aggressive tend to be (POPULAR [or ADMIRED]).
36. The divide most apparent between Internet users and nonusers is no longer gender or social class, but rather ___.
The divide most apparent between Internet users and nonusers is no longer gender or social class, but rather (AGE).
37. The Internet can pose several dangers. In particular, teens may visit certain Web sites that allow them to be engaged in potentially hazardous behavior. Two examples of this given in the textbook are _____________ and ____-__________.
The Internet can pose several dangers. In particular, teens may visit certain Web sites that allow them to be engaged in potentially hazardous behavior. Two examples of this given in the textbook are (CYBERBULLYING) and (SELF-MUTILATION).
38. An evaluation practice that is critical in determining student success or failure is known as ____-______ _______.
An evaluation practice that is critical in determining student success or failure is known as (HIGH-STAKES TESTING).
39. An unintended consequence of high-stakes testing is _________ dropout rates.
An unintended consequence of high-stakes testing is (INCREASED) dropout rates.
1. The number of students enrolled in a high school is unrelated to learning and participation in school activities.
A) True
B) False
B – False
2. Young adolescent pregnancy slows down or stops both growth in height and an increase in bone density for the mother-to-be.
A) True
B) False
A – True
3. In adolescence, growth proceeds in a cephalo-caudal pattern.
A) True
B) False
B – False
4. The major events of growth and sexual maturation associated with puberty typically are completed a year or two after puberty begins.
A) True
B) False
B – False
5. Child sexual abuse is more common between 12–15 years of age than at any other time.
A) True
B) False
A – True
6. During puberty, girls' estradiol production increases up to eight times as much as it was during childhood.
A) True
B) False
A – True
7. Dropout rates have declined in the United States because of high-stakes testing.
A) True
B) False
B – False
8. Becky is typical of other 13-year-olds. She spends at least twice the time getting ready for school in the morning as she did in elementary school because of self-consciousness about her appearance.
A) True
B) False
A – True
9. STI stands for syphilis-type infection.
A) True
B) False
B – False
10. It appears that the timing of menarche is related to the accumulation of a certain amount of body fat, which is why tall, thin, athletic girls generally menstruate later than other girls do.
A) True
B) False
A – True
11. Some boys experience some breast enlargement during puberty.
A) True
B) False
A – True
12. Andre constantly thinks about himself and how others perceive him. He is most likely in his adolescent years.
A) True
B) False
A – True
13. One reason for nutritional deficiencies during adolescence is preoccupation with body image.
A) True
B) False
A – True
14. While intuitive thinking may be wrong because it is quick and emotional, rational thinking is right because it is analytical.
A) True
B) False
B – False
15. Student motivation has greatly increased over the past several years due to the challenge of passing high-stakes tests.
A) True
B) False
B – False
16. Most STIs are fatal if not treated properly.
A) True
B) False
B – False
17. The cognitive gains needed for such tasks as balancing a scale with weights are usually acquired during adolescence.
A) True
B) False
B – False
18. The invincibility fable reflects adolescent egocentrism.
A) True
B) False
A – True
19. In boys, final pubic-hair pattern is established at age 14.
A) True
B) False
B – False
20. In an experiment by Inhelder and Piaget that involved balancing a scale with weights, the age at which children were first able to use the trial-and-error method to achieve some understanding of balancing was approximately 10 years.
A) True
B) False
A – True
21. Most American high-school seniors eat the daily recommended amount of fruits and vegetables.
A) True
B) False
B – False
22. In high-stakes testing, students are typically offered several different tests covering the same material to address different learning styles.
A) True
B) False
B – False
23. The belief in an imaginary audience makes adolescents very self-conscious.
A) True
B) False
A – True
24. Late-maturing girls tend to have a worse body image than their early-maturing peers do.
A) True
B) False
B – False
25. Analytic thinking and intuitive thinking nearly always come up with the same conclusion.
A) True
B) False
B – False
26. Facial hair development is among the last visual signs of pubertal changes in males.
A) True
B) False
A – True
27. It is usual and typical for children to begin seeing pubertal changes in their bodies between ages 8 and 14.
A) True
B) False
A – True
28. The changes of puberty are initiated by a part of the brain called the hypothalamus.
A) True
B) False
A – True
29. Teen births are more frequent than they were 20 years ago in the United States.
A) True
B) False
B – False
30. In adolescence, growth proceeds in a proximal-distal pattern.
A) True
B) False
B – False
1. Erikson described ____ _________ as the stage where an adolescent has a lack of commitment to any goals or values.
Erikson described (ROLE CONFUSION) as the stage where an adolescent has a lack of commitment to any goals or values.
2. An individual's ________ is his or her unique and consistent self-definition.
An individual's (IDENTITY) is his or her unique and consistent self-definition.
3. According to Erikson, the ultimate psychosocial goal is identity ___________.
According to Erikson, the ultimate psychosocial goal is identity (ACHIEVEMENT).
4. A premature identity formation that involves wholesale acceptance of parental values is called ___________.
A premature identity formation that involves wholesale acceptance of parental values is called (FORECLOSURE).
5. Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voiced their disapproval, he replied, “Whatever.” Andrew's response reflects features of identity _________.
Seventeen-year-old Andrew failed several classes, lost his job, and spends most of his time sleeping on the couch. When his parents voiced their disapproval, he replied, “Whatever.” Andrew's response reflects features of identity (DIFFUSION).
6. The term used to describe the direction of a person's erotic desires is called ______ ___________.
The term used to describe the direction of a person's erotic desires is called (SEXUAL ORIENTATION).
7. ______ ________ includes the roles and behaviors that society associates with the cultural and social characteristics considered appropriate for males and females.
(GENDER IDENTITY) includes the roles and behaviors that society associates with the cultural and social characteristics considered appropriate for males and females.
8. The more hours of after-school employment adolescents work, the ____ learning they do in school.
The more hours of after-school employment adolescents work, the (LESS) learning they do in school.
9. Karen, who is 15 years old, is repeatedly arguing with her mother about the chores her mother has assigned to her. This type of repeated, ongoing arguing is also known as _________.
Karen, who is 15 years old, is repeatedly arguing with her mother about the chores her mother has assigned to her. This type of repeated, ongoing arguing is also known as (BICKERING).
10. Parental __________ refers to parents being watchful and aware of where their children are and what they are doing.
Parental (MONITORING) refers to parents being watchful and aware of where their children are and what they are doing.
11. A particularly harmful type of parental monitoring is _____________ _______ because the withdrawal of love and support is threatened.
A particularly harmful type of parental monitoring is (PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTROL) because the withdrawal of love and support is threatened.
12. In adolescence, ____ ________ can be negative, such as when it promotes conformance to deviant standards, or positive, such as when it promotes refraining from smoking.
In adolescence, (PEER PRESSURE) can be negative, such as when it promotes conformance to deviant standards, or positive, such as when it promotes refraining from smoking.
13. During the active process involving selection of friends, adolescents are also engaged in the process of ____________, whereby peers involve each other in right and wrong behavior.
During the active process involving selection of friends, adolescents are also engaged in the process of (FACILITATION), whereby peers involve each other in right and wrong behavior.
14. For an adolescent whose parents are recent immigrants, _____ or _______ can help him or her negotiate conflicting cultural demands.
For an adolescent whose parents are recent immigrants, (PEERS or FRIENDS) can help him or her negotiate conflicting cultural demands.
15. The most commonly used method to control adolescent sexuality is ___ _________.
The most commonly used method to control adolescent sexuality is (SEX EDUCATION).
16. Adolescents who have taken a virginity pledge in high school are more likely to ___ _______ and/or ____ ________ after high school.
Adolescents who have taken a virginity pledge in high school are more likely to (GET MARRIED or HAVE CHILDREN) after high school.
17. The abstinence-only sex education program had ______ __ __ effect on the sexual activity of teenagers.
The abstinence-only sex education program had (LITTLE OR NO) effect on the sexual activity of teenagers.
18. The term used to describe the occurrence of two or more disorders embodied by the same person is known as ___________.
The term used to describe the occurrence of two or more disorders embodied by the same person is known as (COMORBIDITY).
19. ________ __________ is defined as marked feelings of sadness and worthlessness leading to lack of interest in, and isolation from, normal activities for 2 weeks or more.
(CLINICAL DEPRESSION) is defined as marked feelings of sadness and worthlessness leading to lack of interest in, and isolation from, normal activities for 2 weeks or more.
20. The most lethal consequence of adolescent depression is _______.
The most lethal consequence of adolescent depression is (SUICIDE).
21. The process of __________ or mentally replaying past experiences, contributes to depression, especially in girls.
The process of (RUMINATION) or mentally replaying past experiences, contributes to depression, especially in girls.
22. Suicidal ________ refers to thinking about suicide.
Suicidal (IDEATION) refers to thinking about suicide.
23. Suicide ________ are more common in adolescence than in adulthood.
Suicide (ATTEMPTS) are more common in adolescence than in adulthood.
24. ___________ includes any self-destructive act that does not end in death, regardless of whether the individual's intent was clear.
(PARASUICIDE) includes any self-destructive act that does not end in death, regardless of whether the individual's intent was clear.
25. When an adolescent suicide is well publicized and seems to make a strong impression on other adolescents in the community, adults should pay special attention to the person's friends and schoolmates in order to prevent _______ suicides.
When an adolescent suicide is well publicized and seems to make a strong impression on other adolescents in the community, adults should pay special attention to the person's friends and schoolmates in order to prevent (CLUSTER) suicides.
26. The two other risk factors that increase a teen's risk of suicide, in addition to availability of guns and being part of a culture that condones suicide, are ____________ __ _______ ___ _____ _____ and ____ __ ________ ___________.
The two other risk factors that increase a teen's risk of suicide, in addition to availability of guns and being part of a culture that condones suicide, are (AVAILABILITY OF ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS) and (LACK OF PARENTAL SUPERVISION).
27. The term adolescence-_______ offender refers to individuals whose criminal activity stops by age 21.
The term adolescence-(LIMITED) offender refers to individuals whose criminal activity stops by age 21.
28. An innovative strategy for changing the context of adolescent violent behavior and working toward more positive outcomes is assigning such adolescents to ___________ ______ ____.
An innovative strategy for changing the context of adolescent violent behavior and working toward more positive outcomes is assigning such adolescents to (THERAPEUTIC FOSTER CARE).
29. The idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned is ____________ __________.
The idea that each new generation forgets what the previous generation learned is (GENERATIONAL FORGETTING).
1. The science of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand:
A) how and why people from diverse cultures are different.
B) how children learn to speak and understand language.
C) how and why people change across the life span.
D) how humans and animals are similar and different.
The science of human development may best be described as an attempt to understand:

C) how and why people change across the life span.
2. Scientists seek to progress from:
A) fact to fiction.
B) observation to truth.
C) rumor to fact.
D) opinion to truth.
Scientists seek to progress from:

D) opinion to truth.
3. The first step in the scientific method involves:
A) posing a question.
B) running an experiment.
C) selecting a group of participants.
D) asking people to participate.
The first step in the scientific method involves:

A) posing a question
4. Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:
A) draw conclusions.
B) run an experiment.
C) select a group of participants.
D) develop a hypothesis.
Within the scientific method, once a researcher poses a question, her next step is to:

D) develop a hypothesis
5. Once a researcher has developed a hypothesis, his next step in the scientific method is to:
A) draw conclusions.
B) design and conduct research to gather empirical evidence (data).
C) replicate the study.
D) report the results.
Once a researcher has developed a hypothesis, his next step in the scientific method is to:

B) design and conduct research to gather empirical evidence (data).
6. Once the researcher has tested his/her hypothesis, the fourth step in the scientific process is to:
A) replicate the study.
B) report the results.
C) draw conclusions.
D) write a new hypothesis.
Once the researcher has tested his/her hypothesis, the fourth step in the scientific process is to:

C) draw conclusions.
7. The final step in the scientific method is:
A) test the hypothesis.
B) draw conclusions.
C) write a new hypothesis.
D) report the results.
The final step in the scientific method is:

D) report the results.
8. What is replication of a study?
A) the repetition of a study, using different participants
B) the repetition of a study, using the same participants
C) designing a new study based on information from a previous study
D) designing a new study using new ideas and information
What is replication of a study?

A) The repetition of a study, using different participants.
9. Why is replication of a study necessary?
A) to answer any questions that were not addressed in the previous study
B) to give more researchers more jobs
C) it is needed before the scientific community accepts the study's conclusions
D) to see if it is possible to do the same study two times
Why is replication of a study necessary?

C) It is needed before the scientific community accepts the study’s conclusions.
10. A crucial element of the science of human development is the:
A) focus on all kinds of people, young and old.
B) search for the meaning of life.
C) focus on middle-class American people.
D) use of subjective research methods.
A crucial element of the science of human development is the:

A) Focus on all kinds of people, young and old.
11. Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:
A) proteins.
B) nature.
C) nurture.
D) amino acids.
Traits, capacities, and limitations that we each receive from our biological parents are said to be a result of:

B) Nature.
12. Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?
A) The relationship between the two moves only in one direction. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture has no effect on our genes.
B) The relationship between the two is clear. Genes (nature) determine our physical traits, while nurture affects the development of our psychological and behavioral traits.
C) Nurture is the primary influence on our overall development. Genes only set the stage, and from the moment of birth nurture takes over.
D) The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes.
Which of the following best summarizes the relative importance of nature and nurture in our development?

D) The relationship between the two is reciprocal. In other words, our genes set the stage for our development; nurture affects the manifestation of those genetic influences. Nurture, in turn, affects genes.
13. What is a “critical period” of development?
A) when certain things must occur for normal development
B) when a person is in critical condition
C) the point after conception and before implantation of a fetus
D) any time period after birth when the child is learning
What is a “critical period” of development?

A) When certain things must occur for normal development.
14. What is the “sensitive period” of development?
A) when the child is most sensitive to instruction
B) when it is most difficult for development to occur
C) when a particular development occurs most easily
D) when the child is developing emotional control
What is the “sensitive period” of development?

C) when a particular development occurs most easily.
15. Which of the following best defines the difference-equals-deficit error?
A) The mistaken assumption that a deviation from a norm is inferior to behavior that is statistically normal.
B) The scientific explanation that explains how behavioral deficits interfere with day-to-day functioning.
C) The mistaken assumption that there is no such thing as “normal” behavior because each individual is unique.
D) The mistaken assumption that all variations from normal behavior are a result of nature.
Which of the following best defines the difference-equals-deficit error?

A) The mistaken assumption that a deviation from a norm is inferior to behavior that is statistically normal.
16. David and Nichole both have normal hearing, and their children all have normal hearing. David and Nichole have decided to teach their daughter Celeste, who is 3, American Sign Language. Based on the research of Cook et al., why might David and Nichole be doing this?
A) Celeste will probably interact with deaf children at school, so she will be able to interact with all of her peers.
B) Children learn better when they use gestures as well as words when speaking.
C) Children who learn sign language develop better fine-motor coordination.
D) There is no reasonable explanation unless an extended family member is deaf.
David and Nichole both have normal hearing, and their children all have normal hearing. David and Nichole have decided to teach their daughter Celeste, who is 3, American Sign Language. Based on the research of Cook et al., why might David and Nichole be doing this?

B) Children learn better when they use gestures as well as words when speaking.
17. What are the three domains of human development described in the text?
A) cognitive, biological, psychological
B) biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial
C) psychosocial, biological, cognitive
D) psychological, biosocial, cognitive
What are the three domains of human development described in the text?

B) biosocial, cognitive, psychosocial
18. Which of the following is NOT one of the domains of human development discussed in the text?
A) biosocial development
B) cognitive development
C) psychosocial development
D) chronological development
Which of the following is NOT one of the domains of human development discussed in the text?

D) chronological development
19. A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the:
A) plastic nature of development.
B) dynamic-systems theory.
C) life-span perspective.
D) multicontextual effect.
A manner of studying human development that takes into account all phases of life is referred to as the:

C) life-span perspective
20. The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies the following characteristic of the life-span perspective:
A) multidirectional
B) multidisciplinary
C) plasticity
D) multicontextual
The notion that development involves gains and losses that do not always occur in a straight line exemplifies the following characteristic of the life-span perspective:

A) multidirectional
21. Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next?
A) continuity
B) systems
C) discontinuity
D) critical period
Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear to persist, unchanging, from one age to the next?

A) continuity
22. Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear quite different from those that came before?
A) continuity
B) systems
C) discontinuity
D) critical period
Which of the following concepts refers to behaviors that develop over time and appear quite different from those that came before?

C) discontinuity
23. Cohort refers to a group of people who:
A) hold the same political beliefs.
B) are born within a few years of one another.
C) support each other in times of stress.
D) participate in a scientific experiment.
Cohort refers to a group of people who:

B) are born within a few years of one another.
24. When people belong to different cohorts, they differ in:
A) membership in community groups.
B) socioeconomic status.
C) age group or generation.
D) ethnic or racial groups.
When people belong to different cohorts, they differ in:

C) age group or generation.
25. You and your high school classmates are part of the same:
A) social construction.
B) context.
C) socioeconomic status.
D) cohort.
You and your high school classmates are part of the same:

D) cohort.
26. The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances.
A) educational
B) socioeconomic
C) historical
D) familial
The concept of a cohort is important because individuals in the same cohort experience the same ______ circumstances.

C) historical
27. Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?
A) educational
B) ethnic
C) historical
D) socioeconomic
Dora, who is 75 years old, disagrees completely with her teenage granddaughter about the proper role of women. Their arguments are most likely to arise from differences in which context?

C) historical
28. Pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. According to the multicontextual characteristic of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to:
A) a cohort effect.
B) fond memories of high school.
C) her success beyond high school.
D) social context.
Pam attended her 20th high school reunion and had a wonderful time dancing the old dances and singing the old songs. According to the multicontextual characteristic of development, her enjoyment may be attributed to:

A) a cohort effect.
29. At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the:
A) cultural context.
B) ethnic context.
C) social context.
D) historical context.
At 55 years of age, Ross lost his job and had to be retrained in a new field that required taking a course over the Internet. Never having gone online, he was baffled while his younger classmates excelled. His frustration may be attributed to differences in the:

D) historical context.
30. Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's:
A) culture.
B) ethnicity.
C) social class.
D) race.
Socioeconomic status refers to an individual's:

C) social class.
31. An individual's socioeconomic status includes:
A) ethnicity.
B) level of education.
C) political beliefs.
D) religion.
An individual's socioeconomic status includes:

B) level of education.
32. The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:
A) culture.
B) cohort.
C) ethnicity.
D) environment.
The values, assumptions, customs, clothing, technologies, and art that a group of people have developed over the years as a design for living are referred to as their:

A) culture.
33. Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon:
A) A close loving bond can shield children against abuse.
B) More children than adults live in lower-income households.
C) American women tend to be shorter than American men.
D) American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents.
Identify an example of a cultural phenomenon:

D) American babies usually sleep in a room separate from their parents.
34. A researcher interested in making a multicultural comparison would be most likely to compare which of the following?
A) males and females
B) eight-year-olds and eighteen-year-olds
C) computer users and non-users
D) Australians and Canadians
A researcher interested in making a multicultural comparison would be most likely to compare which of the following?

D) Australians and Canadians
35. Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han:
A) is rejecting his Chinese heritage to fit in with his American friends.
B) will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States.
C) is having difficulty finding his cultural identity because he is an adolescent.
D) is going through a sensitive period of development, so they need to be patient until he passes through this phase.
Han's parents immigrated to the United States from China. While they focused strongly on passing their cultural traditions down to their son, they were distressed to observe Han incorporating some American traditions into their Chinese heritage. It might be helpful for Han's parents to understand that Han:

B) will experience his culture somewhat differently than his parents do because of having moved to the United States.
36. Who was the leader in describing the interaction between culture and education?
A) Urie Brofenbrenner
B) B. F. Skinner
C) Lev Vygotsky
D) Sigmund Freud
Who was the leader in describing the interaction between culture and education?

C) Lev Vygotsky
37. What is the process by which mentors guide novices to master the skills and habits expected within a culture?
A) guided participation
B) apprenticeship
C) teaching
D) lecturing
What is the process by which mentors guide novices to master the skills and habits expected within a culture?

A) guided participation
38. If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:
A) nation.
B) racial group.
C) culture.
D) ethnic group.
If a group of people have the same ancestors, religion, and language, they are said to be part of the same:

D) ethnic group.
39. In many cultures around the world, people believe that it is the husband's responsibility to earn the majority of the income for the family. This is an example of:
A) an ethnic belief.
B) a racial bias.
C) a social construction.
D) heritage.
In many cultures around the world, people believe that it is the husband's responsibility to earn the majority of the income for the family. This is an example of:

C) a social construction.
40. What term refers to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual's or species' genetic inheritance?
A) genes
B) epigenetic
C) traits
D) genotype
What term refers to the effects of environmental forces on the expression of an individual's or species' genetic inheritance?

B) epigenetic
41. The idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the ______ characteristic of development.
A) multidisciplinary
B) multicontextual
C) plasticity
D) multidirectional
The idea that the study of development involves several academic fields defines the ______ characteristic of development.

A) multidisciplinary
42. Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called:
A) motor neurons.
B) mirror neurons.
C) sensory neurons.
D) glial cells.
Brain cells that respond to actions performed by someone else by mimicking the action are called:

B) mirror neurons.
43. When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?
A) Leila's behavior was strictly coincidental.
B) Mirror neurons were activated.
C) She was exhibiting early signs of high intelligence.
D) She was exhibiting the tongue-thrust reflex.
When her grandfather stuck his tongue out at her, two-day-old Leila stuck her tongue out in return. How might scientists explain her behavior?

B) Mirror neurons were activated.
44. The notion of plasticity refers to the:
A) fact that many academic fields contribute data and insight to the science of development.
B) universals and specifics of human development in many cultural settings.
C) vast array of contexts in which development occurs.
D) ability of human traits to be molded during development.
The notion of plasticity refers to the:

D) ability of human traits to be molded during development.
45. According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:
A) the choices we make for ourselves.
B) the environment in which we are raised.
C) our unconscious motives and drives.
D) the way we think about and understand the world.
According to psychoanalytic theories, human development is mainly determined by:

C) our unconscious motives and drives.
46. Psychoanalytic theory views intrinsic drives and motives as the foundation for:
A) innate intelligence.
B) genetic differences.
C) classical conditioning.
D) every aspect of thinking and behavior.
Psychoanalytic theory views intrinsic drives and motives as the foundation for:

D) every aspect of thinking and behavior.
47. Freud believed that all people experience ______ related to various parts of their bodies.
A) aggressive tendencies
B) sensual satisfactions
C) needs for self-control
D) hidden fears
Freud believed that all people experience ______ related to various parts of their bodies.

B) sensual satisfactions
48. In order, Freud's first three stages of development are:
A) mouth, body, eyes.
B) trust, autonomy, identity.
C) oral, anal, phallic.
D) anal, genital, latent.
In order, Freud's first three stages of development are:

C) oral, anal, phallic.
49. Danielle sucks her thumb because she finds it very pleasurable. According to Freud, Danielle is most likely in:
A) the anal stage.
B) the oral stage.
C) latency.
D) the phallic stage.
Danielle sucks her thumb because she finds it very pleasurable. According to Freud, Danielle is most likely in:

B) the oral stage.
50. Joseph always dates women who are at least ten years older than he is. Which of the following might Freud propose as an explanation for Joseph's attraction to older women?
A) Joseph has developed an oral fixation.
B) Joseph's parents probably did not apply appropriate potty training.
C) As a child, Joseph had an unhealthy relationship with his siblings.
D) Joseph is stuck in the phallic stage of development.
Joseph always dates women who are at least ten years older than he is. Which of the following might Freud propose as an explanation for Joseph's attraction to older women?

D) Joseph is stuck in the phallic stage of development.
51. According to Freud, each stage of development involves:
A) potential conflicts.
B) inappropriate sexual urges.
C) a major developmental crisis.
D) need for cultural adaptation.
According to Freud, each stage of development involves:

A) potential conflicts.
52. According to Freud, sexual needs are relatively quiet during which stage of development?
A) toddlerhood
B) latency
C) adulthood
D) infancy
According to Freud, sexual needs are relatively quiet during which stage of development?

B) latency
53. According to Freud, who is most likely to be in the genital stage?
A) a 6-month-old girl
B) a 1-year-old boy
C) a 7-year-old girl
D) a 16-year-old boy
According to Freud, who is most likely to be in the genital stage?

D) a 16-year-old boy
54. Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are best known for their contributions to ______ theory.
A) cognitive
B) sociocultural
C) psychoanalytic
D) behavioral
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson are best known for their contributions to ______ theory.

C) psychoanalytic
55. According to Erikson, an infant must resolve the crisis of:
A) industry vs. inferiority.
B) trust vs. mistrust.
C) autonomy vs. shame and doubt.
D) independence vs. dependence.
According to Erikson, an infant must resolve the crisis of:

B) trust vs. mistrust
56. In the industry vs. inferiority stage, children try to:
A) become accepted by important others.
B) figure out who they are.
C) master new skills.
D) become toilet trained.
In the industry vs. inferiority stage, children try to:

C) master new skills.
57. Erikson believed that the main crisis during adolescence involved:
A) trying to find an intimate relationship.
B) establishing a sense of self-control.
C) learning to trust others in the world.
D) trying to determine what roles to play.
Erikson believed that the main crisis during adolescence involved:

D) trying to determine what roles to play.
58. The psychosocial stage in which people try to see their lives as a worthy and justifiable whole is:
A) identity vs. role confusion.
B) the formal operational stage.
C) integrity vs. despair.
D) the genital stage.
The psychosocial stage in which people try to see their lives as a worthy and justifiable whole is:

C) integrity vs. despair.
59. Unlike Freud, Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes:
A) the logic that underlies thought processes.
B) the inherent rewards and punishments of living.
C) active mental processes.
D) the social and cultural environment.
Unlike Freud, Erikson's psychosocial theory emphasizes:

D) the social and cultural environment.
60. The theory that arose in direct opposition to psychoanalytic theory is:
A) cognitive theory.
B) behaviorism.
C) sociocultural theory.
D) ecological theory.
The theory that arose in direct opposition to psychoanalytic theory is:

B) behaviorism.
61. Behaviorism focuses on which of the following?
A) observable behavior
B) unconscious urges
C) thoughts
D) emotions
Behaviorism focuses on which of the following?

A) observable behavior
62. Which of the following is a primary difference between behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory?
A) Psychoanalytic theory holds that the unconscious is unknowable and therefore irrelevant to describing behavior, while behaviorism believes that the only way to correct unwanted behavior is to understand the unconscious.
B) Psychoanalytic theory places little emphasis on a child's relationship with her parents, while behaviorism believes that this relationship is key in explaining behavior.
C) Psychoanalytic theory believes that observable behavior is a symptom of unconscious drives, while behaviorism believes that observable behaviors are all that matter.
D) Behaviorism believes that scientific scrutiny is of little importance in supporting theories, while psychoanalysis has its roots in the scientific method.
Which of the following is a primary difference between behaviorism and psychoanalytic theory?

C) Psychoanalytic theory believes that observable behavior is a symptom of unconscious drives, while behaviorism believes that observable behaviors are all that matter.
63. The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was:
A) Ivan Pavlov.
B) B. F. Skinner.
C) John B. Watson.
D) Lev Vygotsky.
The scientist who first demonstrated classical conditioning was:

A) Ivan Pavlov.
64. In classical conditioning, an organism learns:
A) a reflex.
B) that reinforcement follows responses.
C) to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one.
D) how to become self-sufficient.
In classical conditioning, an organism learns:

C) to associate a neutral stimulus with a meaningful one.
65. Which of the following would be a result of classical conditioning?
A) laughing at a funny movie
B) crying with the pain of a stubbed toe
C) feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies
D) wearing layers in the winter
Which of the following would be a result of classical conditioning?

C) feeling happy at the smell of baking cookies
66. The researcher most associated with operant conditioning is:
A) Ivan Pavlov.
B) B. F. Skinner.
C) John B. Watson.
D) Lev Vygotsky.
The researcher most associated with operant conditioning is:

B) B. F. Skinner
67. In operant conditioning, an organism learns that:
A) a neutral stimulus is associated with a meaningful stimulus.
B) punishment always follows a reinforcer.
C) classically conditioned responses are learned for life.
D) a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence.
In operant conditioning, an organism learns that:

D) a particular behavior usually produces a particular consequence.
68. Operant conditioning is also known as:
A) classical conditioning.
B) respondent conditioning.
C) instrumental conditioning.
D) reciprocal determinism.
Operant conditioning is also known as:

C) instrumental conditioning.
69. In operant conditioning, reinforcers:
A) are easy to determine.
B) diminish behaviors which they follow.
C) strengthen behaviors which they follow.
D) are sometimes pleasant and sometimes unpleasant.
In operant conditioning, reinforcers:

C) strengthen behaviors which they follow.
70. In operational conditioning, reinforcements have what effect on an individual's behavior?
A) make the behavior more likely to reoccur
B) make the behavior less likely to reoccur
C) ensure that the behavior will remain constant
D) cause an individual to think harder about his or her behavior
In operational conditioning, reinforcements have what effect on an individual's behavior?

A) make the behavior more likely to reoccur
71. Social learning theory emphasizes:
A) cooperation with others.
B) observation and imitation.
C) reinforcers.
D) understanding how one's behavior affects other people.
Social learning theory emphasizes:

B) observation and imitation.
72. After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred.
A) operant conditioning
B) classical conditioning
C) reinforcement
D) modeling
After watching a new Jackie Chan movie, Rob tries some of the karate moves he saw in the film. Social learning theorists would say that ______ has occurred.

D) modeling
73. A father wants his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. According to social learning theory, the father should:
A) give his son a “time out” if he doesn't help with the dishes.
B) promise the boy a new basketball if he helps wash the dishes.
C) help out with the dishes himself.
D) tell his son that he can't have dessert unless he helps with the dishes.
A father wants his son to help his mother wash the dishes every night. According to social learning theory, the father should:

C) help out with the dishes himself.
74. Cognitive theories emphasize the:
A) development of thought processes and their effect on behavior, attitudes, and beliefs.
B) role of unconscious urges and impulses.
C) control that external forces have over the direction of human development.
D) crisis that each individual must resolve at each stage of life.
Cognitive theories emphasize the:

A) development of thought processes and their effect on behavior, attitudes, and beliefs.
75. Cognitive theory focuses on:
A) actions.
B) unconscious urges.
C) thoughts.
D) feelings.
Cognitive theory focuses on:

C) thoughts.
76. A major pioneer in cognitive theory was:
A) Freud.
B) Vygotsky.
C) Pavlov.
D) Piaget.
A major pioneer in cognitive theory was:

D) Piaget.
77. Piaget was most interested in:
A) how children think.
B) how parents discipline their children.
C) what children know.
D) how peers influence each other.
Piaget was most interested in:

A) how children think.
78. Piaget's theory of development focused primarily on:
A) how our thinking changes as we grow older.
B) biological and physical changes.
C) our unconscious issues.
D) the ways in which our environment influences our physical development.
Piaget's theory of development focused primarily on:

A) how our thinking changes as we grow older.
79. Piaget's view of cognitive development includes the idea that:
A) children learn best when they are rewarded for learning.
B) cognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.
C) young children learn everything they know from their parents.
D) culture ultimately determines cognitive growth.
Piaget's view of cognitive development includes the idea that:

B) cognitive development follows age-related changes in understanding.
80. When a person can understand new experience using his existing thought processes, he has achieved:
A) cognitive dissonance.
B) discordance.
C) cognitive equilibrium.
D) concordance.
When a person can understand new experience using his existing thought processes, he has achieved:

C) cognitive equilibrium.
81. According to Piaget, cognitive growth is promoted by a need for:
A) assimilation.
B) models.
C) reinforcement.
D) equilibrium.
According to Piaget, cognitive growth is promoted by a need for:

D) equilibrium.
82. During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:
A) learn to use language to express sensations.
B) think of past and future events.
C) use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
D) think logically and critically to understand the world.
During the sensorimotor stage, the main task is to:

C) use senses and motor skills to understand the world.
83. Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called:
A) formal operational.
B) preoperational.
C) concrete operational.
D) sensorimotor.
Piaget's second stage of cognitive development is called:

B) preoperational.
84. During which of Piaget's stages do children begin to express their internal experience in terms of symbols such as speaking?
A) sensorimotor
B) preoperational
C) formal operational
D) concrete operational
During which of Piaget's stages do children begin to express their internal experience in terms of symbols such as speaking?

B) preoperational
85. The most advanced stage of cognitive development according to Piaget is the:
A) concrete operational.
B) abstract operational.
C) formal operational.
D) symbolic operational.
The most advanced stage of cognitive development according to Piaget is the:

C) formal operational.
86. According to Piaget, two types of adaptation are:
A) object permanence and decentering.
B) concrete and formal operations.
C) equilibrium and disequilibrium.
D) assimilation and accommodation.
According to Piaget, two types of adaptation are:

D) assimilation and accommodation.
87. According to Piaget, when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding, the person experiences cognitive:
A) disbelief.
B) disequilibrium.
C) disarray.
D) disorganization.
According to Piaget, when a new experience or idea does not fit a person's existing understanding, the person experiences cognitive:

B) disequilibrium.
88. If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen someone from there before, you would still recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process is called:
A) accommodation.
B) assimilation.
C) object permanence.
D) disequilibrium.
If you were to see a man from the nation of Fiji, but had never seen someone from there before, you would still recognize him as a human being. This cognitive process is called:

B) assimilation.
89. When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process:
A) synchrony.
B) assimilation.
C) accommodation.
D) equilibration.
When we adjust our old ways of thinking in order to include new information, Piaget calls this process:

C) accommodation.
90. Imagine you and your friend are having a discussion about politics. Your friend makes an argument that puts your views into disequilibrium. If you respond by believing that your friend is simply uninformed or dumb, Piaget would say that you are demonstrating:
A) accommodation.
B) disequilibrium.
C) reinterpretation.
D) assimilation.
Imagine you and your friend are having a discussion about politics. Your friend makes an argument that puts your views into disequilibrium. If you respond by believing that your friend is simply uninformed or dumb, Piaget would say that you are demonstrating:

D) assimilation.
91. To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated a(n):
A) microscopic-systems approach.
B) ecological-systems approach.
C) physiological-systems approach.
D) chronological-systems approach.
To understand levels of human development, Urie Bronfenbrenner advocated a(n):

B) ecological-systems approach.
92. An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:
A) Jean Piaget.
B) Sigmund Freud.
C) Urie Bronfenbrenner.
D) Erik Erikson.
An ecological-systems approach to the study of human development was recommended by:

C) Urie Bronfenbrenner.
93. According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David's family on his development is part of his:
A) macrosystem.
B) microsystem.
C) exosystem.
D) mesosystem.
According to the ecological-systems perspective, the influence of David's family on his development is part of his:

B) microsystem.
94. A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the:
A) plastic nature of development.
B) dynamic-systems theory.
C) life-span approach.
D) multicontextual effect.
A manner of studying human development that stresses the fluctuations and transitions that occur constantly throughout life is referred to as the:

B) dynamic-systems theory.
95. Watching and recording others' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner is referred to as:
A) scientific observation.
B) a correlational design.
C) cross-sectional research.
D) a laboratory experiment.
Watching and recording others' behaviors in a systematic and objective manner is referred to as:

A) scientific observation.
96. Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is:
A) a survey.
B) scientific observation.
C) an experiment.
D) an exploration.
Becky wants to study stealing in school-age children. She asked to review surveillance videos from three stores that were focused on the candy aisle. Her method of study is:

B) scientific observation.
97. If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:
A) the case-study method.
B) a controlled experiment.
C) cross-sectional research.
D) scientific observation.
If a researcher watches one-week-old babies and records how many times they open and close their eyes while lying in their cribs, he is most likely using:

D) scientific observation.
98. If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could:
A) give half of them candy and see how many would share.
B) mingle with the children and ask them about sharing.
C) bring a small group into her laboratory and observe them eating.
D) watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom.
If a scientist wanted to use scientific observation to see how frequently schoolchildren share food at lunch, she could:

D) watch the children from an unobtrusive spot in the school lunchroom.
99. Scientific observation permits:
A) the study of individuals behaving as they normally do.
B) determination of cause-and-effect relationships.
C) precise control of the environment.
D) systematic manipulation of variables.
Scientific observation permits:

A) the study of individuals behaving as they normally do.
100. Identify an example of scientific observation.
A) asking employers about their employee's assertive behavior
B) asking teachers to rate children's activity levels in the classroom
C) watching mother–child interactions at home
D) bringing people to a laboratory to measure memory ability
Identify an example of scientific observation.

C) watching mother-child interactions at home
101. Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research?
A) It must be done in a laboratory setting.
B) It cannot be generalized to other populations.
C) It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
D) It violates the ethical standards of research.
Which of the following is the major drawback to observational research?

C) It does not allow us to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
102. Experiments allow researchers to:
A) study the natural environment.
B) study the entire complexity and uniqueness of an individual.
C) inexpensively adhere to the scientific method.
D) determine a cause-and-effect relationship.
Experiments allow researchers to:

D) determine a cause-and-effect relationship.
103. When a researcher is interested in the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is:
A) the case study.
B) scientific observation.
C) the experiment.
D) the survey.
When a researcher is interested in the cause of a particular behavior, the appropriate research method to use is:

C) the experiment.
104. Which of the following is the best definition of “dependent variable”?
A) It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable.
B) It is any unmeasured variable that is not controlled within the context of the experiment.
C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.
D) It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher.
Which of the following is the best definition of “dependent variable”?

A) It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable.
105. Which of the following is the best definition of “independent variable”?
A) It is the measured variable that may change depending upon manipulation of an experimental variable.
B) It is any unmeasured variable not controlled within the experiment.
C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.
D) It is one of the external variables that cannot be controlled by the researcher.
Which of the following is the best definition of “independent variable”?

C) It is the variable that is intentionally manipulated by the researcher.
106. An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be:
A) gender.
B) blood type.
C) eye color.
D) level of depression.
An example of a dependent variable in an experiment might be:

D) level of depression.
107. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:
A) a naturalistic observation.
B) an experiment.
C) a case study.
D) longitudinal research.
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. This study was:

B) an experiment.
108. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the:
A) viewing of the violent film.
B) level of aggression displayed before the film.
C) level of aggression displayed following the film.
D) children's home environment.
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers, and then he observed their aggression levels. In this study, the independent variable was the:

A) viewing of the violent film.
109. A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. In this study, the comparison group was the children:
A) who watched the violent film.
B) who watched the nonviolent film.
C) whose behavior was the inspiration for the study.
D) who watch at least four hours of television per day.
A researcher was interested in whether watching violence affected children's behaviors. To examine this, he showed a violent film to one group of preschoolers and a nonviolent film to a second group of preschoolers. Following the films, the behaviors of the two groups were compared. In this study, the comparison group was the children:

B) who watched the nonviolent film.
110. In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.
A) independent
B) dependent
C) experimental
D) comparison
In an experiment, the group of participants who receive the imposed treatment or special condition is referred to as the ______ group.

C) experimental
111. In an experiment, the group of participants who do not receive the independent variable is called the:
A) dependent group.
B) significant group.
C) control group.
D) experimental group.
In an experiment, the group of participants who do not receive the independent variable is called the:

C) control group.
112. A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:
A) many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.
B) many people answer honestly but the interviewers do not believe them.
C) even a representative sample of people will be biased.
D) when asked the same questions again, responses differ.
A reason why surveys might not be the most valid of research methods is because:

A) many people give inaccurate responses to impress the interviewers.
113. Which of the following is an example of a survey method?
A) personal interviews
B) IQ test scores
C) height/weight statistics
D) school grades
Which of the following is an example of a survey method?

A) personal interviews
114. To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use:
A) a laboratory experiment.
B) a survey.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) the case-study method.
To study people's thoughts about aging, a researcher would most likely use:

B) a survey.
115. Which of the following is the most complex and beneficial way to study change over time?
A) a cross-sequential design
B) a cross-sectional design
C) a meta-sequential design
D) a longitudinal design
Which of the following is the most complex and beneficial way to study change over time?

A) a cross-sequential design
116. In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:
A) sex.
B) social class.
C) age.
D) political affiliation.
In cross-sectional research on development, each of the groups studied is of a different:

C) age.
117. A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of:
A) a naturalistic observation.
B) cross-sectional research.
C) longitudinal research.
D) cross-sequential research.
A researcher was interested in finding out whether children's ability to exhibit self-control when offered unhealthy food changed with age. He asked parents of three-year-old, six-year-old, and nine-year-old children to bring their children into the laboratory, where they were allowed to eat as much candy, cookies, and cake as they wanted. The researcher then compared the amount of food eaten by children of the three different ages. This is an example of:

B) cross-sectional research.
118. Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?
A) There are too many variables to keep track of.
B) Longitudinal changes are not easily measured.
C) Cohort differences—that is, differences in background variables.
D) Cultural differences.
Which of the following is a common difficulty in cross-sectional research?

C) Cohort difference-that is, differences in background variables.
119. The quickest and least expensive way to study development is with:
A) cross-sectional research.
B) the case study.
C) cross-sequential studies.
D) longitudinal research.
The quickest and least expensive way to study development is with:

A) cross-sectional research.
120. To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is:
A) cross-sectional research.
B) a survey at the end of the time period.
C) longitudinal research.
D) establishing an experimental group and a control group.
To study how members of a particular group change or remain the same as they grow older, the best method is:

C) longitudinal research.
121. If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:
A) longitudinal research.
B) cross-sectional research.
C) cross-sequential research.
D) a replication study.
If a researcher wanted to study the development of handwriting ability in children, she could measure the handwriting of a group of second-graders and continue to take handwriting samples from these same children each year until sixth grade. This is an example of:

A) longitudinal research.
122. A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, is conducting:
A) cohort research.
B) longitudinal research.
C) continuous research.
D) cross-sectional research.
A researcher who tests the same individuals over thirty years, when they are 10, 20, 30, and 40 years old, is conducting:

B) longitudinal research.
123. Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to:
A) disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period.
B) disentangle differences in groups of individuals who are of different ages.
C) reduce sample bias.
D) conduct research over only a small time period.
Unlike other types of research, a cross-sequential design allows researchers to:

A) disentangle differences due to chronological age from differences related to historical period.
124. A cross-sequential design:
A) examines a single group of people who are the same age at one point in time.
B) examines two or more groups of people who are of different ages at one point in time.
C) follows a single group of people over an extended period of time.
D) follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time.
A cross-sequential design:

D) follows two or more groups of people who are of different ages over a period of time.
125. The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is:
A) positive.
B) negative.
C) zero.
D) causal.
The more Hank eats, the less hungry he feels. The correlation that exists between his food intake and his hunger is:

B) negative.
126. After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is:
A) positive.
B) negative.
C) zero
D) causal.
After he got his first job and a regular paycheck, Juan found himself buying more and more DVDs, especially as he got pay raises. The correlation between the size of his paycheck and the DVDs is:

A) positive.
127. A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?
A) experimental
B) correlational
C) observational
D) descriptive
A researcher studies the relationship between two variables and determines the likelihood that a change in one variable will result in a change in the other. What type of research is this person conducting?

B) correlational
128. If you find a correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that:
A) high attendance and high grades tend to occur together.
B) high attendance causes high grades.
C) smart children often miss school.
D) smart children enjoy school.
If you find a correlation between school grades and school attendance, you can conclude that:

A) high attendance and high grades tend to occur together.
129. Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?
A) Interviewing all of the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions.
B) Documenting how many hours of television an eight-year-old child watches per week.
C) Observing and documenting the number of aggressive behaviors demonstrated by three-year-olds in a day care setting.
D) Measuring the heights and weights of a group of preschoolers.
Which of the following would be an example of qualitative data collection?

A) Interviewing all of the siblings of a pair of conjoined twins and asking them about their personal interactions.
130. Research data that may be categorized, ranked, or numbered is:
A) anecdotal.
B) qualitative.
C) quantitative.
D) hypothetical.
Research data that may be categorized, ranked, or numbered is:

C) quantitative.
131. Research data that is open-ended and not easily transferable to numbers is:
A) quantitative.
B) qualitative.
C) correlational.
D) hypothetical.
Research data that is open-ended and not easily transferable to numbers is:

B) qualitative.
132. Quantitative information always involves:
A) data on subjects.
B) obtaining much information from research participants.
C) numerical data.
D) studying people over a period of time.
Quantitative information always involves:

C) numerical data.
133. The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their:
A) policies and procedures.
B) participant rules.
C) code of ethics.
D) conditions of liability.
The set of moral principles used by each academic discipline and professional society to protect the integrity of research is referred to as their:

C) code of ethics.
134. Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worker. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:
A) policies and procedures.
B) code of ethics.
C) participant rules.
D) conditions of liability.
Zeke is reviewing a research study design for a co-worker. In it, he discovers a procedure that is questionable in terms of participant safety. For guidance, he turns to his academic discipline's:

B) code of ethics.
135. When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?
A) the children's birth records
B) the names of the children's biological parents if the children are adopted
C) the parents' informed consent
D) the names of the children's peers
When doing research with children, which of the following must be obtained?

C) the parents’ informed consent
136. The initials IRB stand for:
A) Institutional Research Board.
B) International Research Board.
C) Internal Review Board.
D) Intelligence Research Board.
The initials IRB stand for:

A) Institutional Research Board.
137. Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that:
A) participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all.
B) they will be paid for their participation.
C) researchers are not liable for unanticipated outcomes.
D) their names will be published in the final research report.
Researchers obtain informed consent of individuals participating in their studies to ensure the participants understand that:

A) participation is voluntarily, confidential, and harmless for all.
138. In seeking participants for research studies, researchers must explain the purposes and procedures of the study in advance, obtain written permission, and allow participants to stop at any time. This process is known as:
A) holding harmless.
B) informed consent.
C) release of liability.
D) rite of research.
In seeking participants for research studies, researchers must explain the purposes and procedures of the study in advance, obtain written permission, and allow participants to stop at any time. This process is known as:

B) informed consent.
139. An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:
A) halting the study if harm is suspected.
B) changing the data to support the hypothesis.
C) obtaining informed consent.
D) maintaining confidentiality.
An example of a behavior by a researcher that would be considered unethical is:

B) changing the data to support the hypothesis.
140. In order to prevent a researcher's bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the following is an important part of the research process?
A) keeping the research separate from the participants at all times
B) keeping the names of the research participants anonymous
C) providing details of the study which will allow for replication
D) using the same research team for replicating future studies
In order to prevent a researcher's bias from interfering with ethical data collection and reporting, which of the following is an important part of the research process?

C) providing details of the study which will allow for replication
141. Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics of study that:
A) may be researched quickly.
B) may be researched inexpensively.
C) are of major importance to society.
D) are politically correct.
Researchers have an ethical obligation to choose topics of study that:

C) are of major importance to society.
1. The period of development characterized by such things as postponement of marriage and attainment of education is called ________ ______ or ________ _________.
The period of development characterized by such things as postponement of marriage and attainment of education is called (EMERGING ADULTS or EMERGING ADULTHOOD).
2. The optimal years in a person's life for reproduction, hard physical work, and athletic achievement are between the ages of __ __ __.
The optimal years in a person's life for reproduction, hard physical work, and athletic achievement are between the ages of (18 to 25).
3. The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation's population with no increases or decreases is known as the ___________ ____.
The number of births per woman that would be required to maintain a nation's population with no increases or decreases is known as the (REPLACEMENT RATE).
4. Occupations or activities that require some risk or danger are described as ________.
Occupations or activities that require some risk or danger are described as (EDGEWORK).
5. Edgework may be observed in competitive _______ sports.
Edgework may be observed in competitive (EXTREME) sports.
6. The ingestion of a drug in a quantity or manner that is harmful to physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well being is known as ____ _____.
The ingestion of a drug in a quantity or manner that is harmful to physical, cognitive, or psychosocial well being is known as (DRUG ABUSE).
7. The condition in which the absence of a particular drug causes a craving to satisfy a physiological or a psychological need is known as ____ _________.
The condition in which the absence of a particular drug causes a craving to satisfy a physiological or a psychological need is known as (DRUG ADDICTION).
8. What are the four self-descriptions as categorized by Labouvie-Vief? ____-__________, ____________, _______, and __________.
What are the four self-descriptions as categorized by Labouvie-Vief? (SELF-PROTECTIVE, DYSREGULATED, COMPLEX and INTEGRATED).
9. The fear that someone else will judge one's appearance or behavior negatively and thereby confirm that person's prejudiced attitudes is known as __________ ______.
The fear that someone else will judge one's appearance or behavior negatively and thereby confirm that person's prejudiced attitudes is known as (STEREOTYPE THREAT).
10. Over the past several decades, a larger proportion of college students are choosing ______-based programs rather than liberal arts programs.
Over the past several decades, a larger proportion of college students are choosing (CAREER)-based programs rather than liberal arts programs.
11. Which mood disorder is characterized by a “loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities” for two weeks or more? _____ __________.
Which mood disorder is characterized by a “loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities” for two weeks or more? (MAJOR DEPRESSION).
12. The origins of major depression are ___________.
The origins of major depression are (BIOCHEMICAL).
13. The new anxiety disorder that has appeared in Japan in which the sufferer stays in their room almost all the time for six months or more is __________.
The new anxiety disorder that has appeared in Japan in which the sufferer stays in their room almost all the time for six months or more is (HIKIKOMORI).
14. What are the three distinct aspects of love as described by Robert Sternberg? _______, ________, and __________.
What are the three distinct aspects of love as described by Robert Sternberg? (PASSION, INTIMACY, and (COMMITMENT).
15. Sophia is a 60-year-old retired woman whose daughter recently had her first child. Sophia will be taking care of her grandchild during the weekdays so that her daughter can work outside the home. The intertwining of the experiences and needs of these family members, all at a different stage of life, is referred to as ______ _____.
Sophia is a 60-year-old retired woman whose daughter recently had her first child. Sophia will be taking care of her grandchild during the weekdays so that her daughter can work outside the home. The intertwining of the experiences and needs of these family members, all at a different stage of life, is referred to as (LINKED LIVES).
1. The period of development characterized by such things as postponement of marriage and attainment of education is now referred to as late adolescence.
A) True
B) False
B – False
2. Traditionally, the years between 18 and 25 were a time for reproduction and hard physical work.
A) True
B) False
A – True
3. The Chinese economy has grown rapidly as a result of restrictive family-planning policies put in place by the Chinese government.
A) True
B) False
A – True
4. In the past decade, fertility rates have dropped lower than the replacement rate in one-third of the world's nations.
A) True
B) False
A – True
5. Individuals who naturally avoid risk prefer to engage in edgework.
A) True
B) False
B – False
6. Emerging adults are the heaviest users of alcohol and cigarettes.
A) True
B) False
A – True
7. Drug use usually decreases by the early twenties.
A) True
B) False
B – False
8. In a longitudinal study conducted on alcohol use, it was shown that despite what one may expect, only 25 percent of emerging adults used alcohol to excess to celebrate their 21st birthday.
A) True
B) False
B – False
9. The high rate of violent deaths among emerging adults is found only in the United States.
A) True
B) False
B – False
10. Informing college students that most classmates do not use illegal drugs or drink to excess can help deter college students from drug use.
A) True
B) False
A – True
11. Adulthood has several distinct stages of cognitive development.
A) True
B) False
B – False
12. Every year of college appears to improve cognitive abilities, including intellectual flexibility.
A) True
B) False
A – True
13. Because of their skepticism, college graduates tend to think more narrowly and rigidly than those who did not attend college.
A) True
B) False
B – False
14. At the end more than at the beginning of college, students are likely to believe that there are clear and absolute truths to discover.
A) True
B) False
B – False
15. Each year that students attend college, their thinking becomes increasingly ritualized and inflexible.
A) True
B) False
B – False
16. As students progress through college, they become more able to see multiple perspectives.
A) True
B) False
A – True
17. Compared to students two decades ago, college students today are less concerned with developing a philosophy of life and more concerned with being financially well-off.
A) True
B) False
A – True
18. More of today's college students enroll in career-based studies and fewer in the liberal arts than did students of 20 years ago.
A) True
B) False
A – True
19. The cognitive changes that occur during college are probably due to both the intellectual challenge and the social interaction.
A) True
B) False
A – True
20. Most emerging adults have a firm grasp of who they are and have solidly established their identity.
A) True
B) False
B – False
21. Erikson believes that a young adult who has achieved identity is eager and willing to fuse his or her identity with others, for example, in intimate relationships.
A) True
B) False
A – True
22. The adult need for intimacy can be fulfilled only by a romantic partner.
A) True
B) False
B – False
23. Most young adults have difficulty finding the time to make friends.
A) True
B) False
B – False
24. Usually the first aspect of love to develop is commitment.
A) True
B) False
B – False
25. Most developmentalists agree that cohabitation before marriage can strengthen a relationship and ensure a happy marriage.
A) True
B) False
B – False