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30 Cards in this Set

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LEARNING
a relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience
CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
a process of learning in which the pairing of 2 stimuli leads to a response to one stimulus that is the same as or similar to the response previously elicited by the other stimulus
what role does extinction play in classical conditioning?
process by which learned responses gradually weaken and eventually disappear when the conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented repeatedly in the absense of the unconditioned stimulus (US).
what role does spontatneous recovery play in classical conditioning?
it is the return of the conditioned response some time after extinction.
what role does stimulus generalization play in classical conditioning?
it is the return of the conditioned response some time after extinction.
what role does stimulus discrimination play in classical conditioning?
through stimulus discrimination, organisms learn to differentiate among stimuli so that stimuli that are related to the conditioned stimulus, but not identical to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response.
what role does higher-order conditioning play in classical conditioning?
it is learning in which a new stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response after it is paired w/ an established conditioned stimlus that already produces the conditioned response.
what stimulus characteristics strengthen conditioned responses?
factors related to the strength of conditioned responses include the frequency of the pairings of the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus, the timing of the presentation of the 2 stimuli, and the intensity of the unconditioned stimulus.
what is the cognitive perspective on classical conditioning?
developed by robert rescorla; it holds that conditioning depends on the informational value that the conditioned stimulus acquires in predicting the occurrence of the unconditioned stimulus. according to this model, humans and other animals actively seek information that helps them make predictions about important events in their envir. conditioned stimuli are cues that they use to make these predictions
what are some examples of classical conditioning in daily life?
-the acquistion of fear responses and taste aversions.
-plays a role in positive emotions and drug cravings
stimulus generalization
the process by which conditioned responses occur in response to stimuli that are similar to conditioned stimuli
d)alternation of a US-CS presentation w/ a CR-UR presentation
which of the following does not affect the strength of conditioned responses?
a)frequency of pairings of the CS with the US
b)timing of the presentation of the CS and US
c)intensity of the US
d)alternation of a US-CS presentation w/ a CR-UR presentation
US
In John Garcia's study of conditioned taste aversions, nausea-inducing radiation was the...
predictive
Robert Rescorla formulated a cognitive model of classical conditioning that views learning as a process in which animals learn to respond to stimuli that have _________ value
a loud noise occurred whenever the rat was in Albert's presence
In Watson and Rayner's study of "Little Albert," the child became frightened of a white rat and similar stimuli because...
What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?
holds that responses that have satisfying effects will be strengthened while those that lead to discomfort will be weakened
OPERANT CONDITIONING
a form learning in which the consequences of behavior influence the likelihood or probability that the behavior will be repeated.
what are the diff. types of reinforcers?
Positive reinforcers: stimuli whose introduction following a response strenghthens the response.

Negative reinforcers: aversive stimuli whose removal following a response strenghthens the response.

Primary reinforcers: stimuli that are naturally reinforcing because they satisfy basic biological needs. (food and water)

Secondary reinforcers: acquire reinforcing value because of their association w/ primary reinforcers
schedules of reinforcement
predetermined plans for timing the delivery of reinforcement.
schedule of continuous reinforcement
reinforcement is given after every correct response
partial reinforcement schedule
-only a portion of correct responses is reinforced
-is administered under ratio or interval schedules
fixed-ratio schedule
reinforcement follows a specified number of correct responses
variable-ratio schedule
the number of correct responses needed before reinforement is given varies around some average number
fixed-interval schedule
a specified period of time must pass before a correct response can be reinforced
variable-interval schedule
the period of time that must elapse b4 a response can be reinforced varies around some average interval
how are schedules of reinforcement related to learning?
-a schedule of continuous reinforcement produces the most rapid learning but also the most rapid extinction of a response when reinforcement is withheld
-response rates in partial-reinforcement schedules vary, as does the resistance of responses to extinction
what are the differneces in the effects of reinforcement and punishment?
Reinforcement: strengthens the response it follows
Punishment: weakens or suppresses the preceding response
what are some applications of operant conditioning?
principles of operant conditioning are used in biofeedback training, behavior modification, and programmed instruction
environment
In operant conditioning, responses are learned and strengthened by the effects they have in the_________
radical behaviorism
B.F. Skinner's belief that all behavior is determined by enviornmental and genetic influences and that free will is an illusion or myth