Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

11 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the 3 basic memory processes?
encoding: converting stimuli into a form that can be stored in memory

storage: retaining them in memory

retrieval: accessing stored info
we encode info by means of..
acoustic codes: coding by sounds

visual codes: coding by mental imaging

semantic codes: codes by meaning

*though we often encode auditory info acoustically, semantic coding typically leads to more enduring memories.
what are the 3 stages of memory?
sensory memory: momentary storage of sensory impressions

short-term memory: working memory of info held in awareness for up to about 30 seconds

long-term memory: long-term or permanent storage of info
three-component model
working memory consists of 3 subsystems:
1) the speech-based phonological loop
2)the visuospatial sketchpad for holding visual or spatial info
3)the central executive: coordinates the other subsystems, processes material held in working memory, and filters out distracting thoughts
semantic network model
-posits that info is held in long-term memory in networks of interlinking concepts
-though a process of spreading activation, thinking of one concept brings related concepts within that semantic network to mind
what are the 2 types of long-term memory?
declaritive memory: "knowing what or that"(brought to mind by conscious effort)

preocedural memory: "knowing how"(engages w/ out any conscious effort)
constructionist theory of memory
hold that memory is a representation, or reconstruction, of past events or experiences
flashbulb memories
vivid, highly detailed, and long-lasting memories of emotionally charged personal or historical events
what factors influence the accuracy of eyewitness testimony?
-ease of recall
-confidence in memory
-general knowledge about the subject
-same-race identification
-occurrence of leading or suggestive questioning
psychologists generally think of memory as an _____ processing system
encoding specificity principle
holds that retrieval of a memory will be more sucessful when cues are available during recall are similar to those present when the material was first committed to memory