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98 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The brain is part of the
central nervous system
The major function of the ________ nervous system is to carry information to and from the _____ nervous system.
peripheral; central
Nerve connections to the muscles and skin are provided by the _____ division of the peripheral nervous system
somatic
The sympathetic branch is responsible for _____ arousal.
increasing
You barely escaped an attack from a large, frightening dog. When you safely arrive at your home you are able to relax because of the _____ branch of the nervous system.
parasympathetic
_________ occurs due to an over reaction of the parasympathetic branch of the nervous system.
Voodoo death
The brain is composed of layers that
were developed over the course of evolution
The ____ layers of the brain are responsible for more primitive activities, while the ____ layers are in control of more complex activities.
bottom, top
The concept of ______ refers to the fact that different parts of the brain control different behaviors.
localization of function
Early physiologists who used phrenology believed which of the following statements:
Lumps on the skull could be used to identify abilities and personality traits

b. Different parts of the brain were responsible for different functions
Which of the following structures are a part of the brain stem?
b. Medulla, pons, reticular activating system
This structure of the brain stem produces neurological activity during sleep and that activity causes dreams.
pons
14. High levels of morphine may cause death due to reduced neurological activity in what area of the brain.
medulla
What is the function of the reticular activating system?
It carries stimulation from the brain stem to higher areas of the brain
Homeostasis is controlled by what structure in the limbic system?
hypothalamus
The role of the ____ in the control of appetite was demonstrated in early research on rats. When lesions were made in one area of this structure, the rats developed a voracious appetite and experienced significant weight gain. However, when the lesions were made in different area of the same structure, they stopped eating. What is this structure called?
hypothalamus
Some cases of ______ are due to low levels of neurological activity in the hypothalamus.
depression
Deterioration of the hippocampus is seen in which illness:
Alzheimer’s disease
High levels of electrical activity in the ______ can lead to violent outbursts in humans
amygdala
The _____ is involved in the processing of memories of emotional events
amygdala
The limbic system consists of what three structures
amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus
This structure is responsible for interpreting incoming sensory stimuli.
thalamus
These areas of the brain receives stimulation from various parts of the body and are responsible for feelings of touch and pain
somatosensory areas
Parkinsons disease is a result of ______ neurological activity in the _______.
excessive, basal ganglia
The ________ divides the brain into the front and back half
central fissure
What area of the brain contains the most neurons?
cortex
Each hemisphere is made up of what four lobes?
frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital
The backs of the hemispheres house the ______.
occipital lobes
The occipital lobes contain the ______ of the brain
visual sensory areas
Your teeth are represented in:
the somatosensory area of the brain
Which of the following statements is true regarding the proportion of the brain devoted to association areas
Humans have a larger proportion of the brain devoted to association areas than animals
The brain structure that provides a communication link between the hemispheres is called the:
corpus callosum
The right side of the body is controlled by the:
left hemisphere
In most people, the left hemisphere is responsible for ____ abilities
language
An individual is thought to have deterioration in his or her right hemisphere. If this is true, what might you notice about the individual?
He/She has experienced a decrease in emotional expression.
An individual suffering from quadriplegia most likely experienced
a break in the upper portion of the spinal cord.
The portion of the neuron that receives stimulation from other neurons is the:
dendrite
The portion of the neuron that carries the nerve impulse out to other neurons is the
axon.
The nerve impulse jumps from one node of Ranvier to the next one in neurons that are
myelinated
Deterioration of the myelin sheath causes
multiple sclerosis
An example of a drug that would affect a nerve impulse by clogging the sodium/potassium channels is:
Novocaine
When nerve impulses are transmitted, an electrical process occurs in the _____, and a chemical process occurs in the _____.
axon, synaptic gap
Taking a drug that influences neurotransmitter activity in more than one area of the brain would be likely to cause
side effects
A drug that works by blocking the reuptake of a neurotransmitter and leaves more of the neurotransmitter in the synapse is:
Zoloft
Underactivity of inhibitory neurons can be associated with:
high levels of anxiety
Steve is in an accident and suffers injuries that cause nerves in his arm and in his brain to die. Which nerves, if any, will regenerate?
the neurons in his arm will regenerate but not those in his brain
The example of workers building a number of different roads and then choosing to only repair and maintain those that were used frequently while letting the unused roads deteriorate is analogous to what neural process?
neural pruning
Branching of dendrites is associated with:
learning
The adrenal gland releases:
epinephrine
Adrenalin is the basis for _____ that increase arousal and are useful in treating disorders such as asthma, whereas testosterone is the basis for ______ that are useful for building new tissues
corticosteroids, anabolic steroids
Which of the following is NOT true of anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids _____
are produced by the adrenal glands
Studies of differences in brain structures have produced evidence that:
women have a larger corpus callosum than men
Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the text as a factor that influences synaptic transmission?
presence of myelin
Which of the following examples would be attributed to neural plasticity?
An individual regains his/her ability to walk after being paralyzed from a stroke
Conducting a true experiment allows researchers to
determine causation
The reliability of a relationship between two variables can be determined from _________ but NOT from __________.
correlational studies; case studies
A relationship between two variables can be expressed as a number ranging from -1.00 to +1.00. This number is called a
correlation coefficient
Blood alcohol level and number of beers consumed are generally:
positively correlated
The number of hours studied for an exam is probably __________ with the number of items a person gets correct on that exam
positively correlated
A negative correlation would most likely be seen between
cigarettes smoked and life expectancy
Controlled experiments allow the determination of
causation
An advantage of longitudinal studies is that they
are useful for studying the effects of time
Ideally, researchers should try to _____ when possible in order to minimize confounding variables
randomly assign participants to conditions
The most efficient and practical way to study the relationship between age and physical illnesses would be to
do a cross-sectional study
A _____ would be the best method for studying the relationship between age and political awareness
longitudinal study
A good way to measure the effect of the environment on depression would be to
compare the levels of depression across various environments
To determine which drug is more effective in reducing depression, an experiment was done in which 50 depressed college students were given treatment X and 50 depressed professors were given treatment Y. The levels of depression were measured by an independent investigator who did not know who was in which condition. This experiment is
confounded
In your text a case study about the effect of sensory deprivation is described. This case study is discussed because it demonstrates that:
the expectations of participants can effect research outcome
Results of research on facilitated communication revealed that:
the facilitator expectation influenced the outcome of the facilitated communication
A double-blind procedure means that _____________ and _____________ do not know who has been assigned to which condition of an experiment
the participants in all conditions; the experimenters
One potential problem with the use of animals in psychological research is that
animal studies often lack generalizability to human situations
An experimenter wants study how extremely stressful states affect memory. However, he knows it would be unethical and impractical to reproduce a situation that would be extremely stressful for the participants in his experiment. Therefore he decides to create a milder and less stressful situation. This is an example of:
an analogue experiment
A researcher is interested in studying effects of smoking on lung cancer. It is probably unethical and impractical to ask potential participants to begin smoking, and therefore she cannot do a true experiment. Instead she might conduct ______.
a quasi experiment
Results of a study are said to be generalizable if
they can be applied to other people or situations
An investigator is interested in determining the affects of alcohol on academic performance in college students. She decides to follow a sample of young adults from their freshman year until they graduate. This is an example of what kind of study.
a longitudinal study
Which of the following is a measure of central tendency:
mode
The median is calculated by
finding the middle score in a distribution
A distribution has scores of 2, 8, 10, 12, 12, 18, and 32 In that distribution, what two measures of central tendency are the same
median and mode
A distribution has a variance of 16. What is the standard deviation of the distribution?
4
Which of the following statements is true about statistically significant findings:
They are expected to occur fewer than 5 times in 100 by chance
Twenty well-controlled experiments are conducted to determine whether NutraSweet causes cancer in rats. The results of each experiment show that NutraSweet does not promote tumorous cells at a faster rate than no treatment or a placebo. From those results it can be concluded that:
there is no evidence that NutraSweet promotes cancer growth
Who believed that differences in behavior are caused by differences in bodily humors or biles?
Hippocrates
Who believed that variations in experience are the primary factor affecting differences in behavior?
Aristotle
The first psychology lab was founded by
Wilhelm Wundt
Psychologists who emphasize the functional approach are interested in:
how experiences help humans adapt to situations
When psychologists take the structural approach to psychology they are interested in:
determining what components go together to result in an experience
Psychologists who believe in the Gestalt approach to psychology take the position that
experience can be best understood by considering it a unified whole
Which of the following situations best illustrates a belief in the structuralist approach?
you believe a painting is best interpreted by looking closely at the different colors and textures within the painting
If a person accepts the psychodynamic approach to psychology, he or she believes that many of our behaviors
are the result of unconscious needs and urges
Which of the following is most likely to have been said by Sigmund Freud?
our behavior is due to unconscious urges, many of which are associated with sex
John Watson would most likely have said which of the following?
our behavior is primarily the result of things you have learned
If you were a humanistic psychologist you would most likely believe which of the following about behaviors?
behaviors are the result of attempts to achieve goodness, personal wholeness, love, self-esteem and self-fulfillment
In the cognitive perspective, behavior is believed to be primarily influenced by
what an individual thinks
Little Albert is an important figure in psychology because he illustrated that:
conditioning can play an important role in understanding human behavior
Bobby is depressed and decides to visit a psychologist. If the psychologist takes a physiological perspective, which of the following would he or she most likely believe is causing Bobby’s depression?
He has a chemical imbalance of neurotransmitters in his brain
Wilhelm Wundt brought ____________ and ____________ together to work in his lab.
philosophers; physiologists
With regard to the different explanations for behavior, which of the following is true?
multiple explanations are correct for some behaviors
Which of the following distinguishes psychiatrists from psychologists?
A psychiatrist has an M.D. degree whereas a psychologist usually has a Ph.D.