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53 Cards in this Set

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How can we reduce dissonance? (There are 3 ways...)
*By changing our behavior to bring it in line with the dissonant cognition
*By attempting to justify our behavior through changing one of the dissonant cognitions (beliefs)
*By attempting to justify our behavior by adding new cognitions
How can a smoker reduce dissonancy using the 3 ways disccused previously?
*They can change their behavior by choosing to quit smoking
*They can convince theymselves that the data linking cigarette smoking to cancer are inconclusive, thus changing a belief.
*Or they could add a belief by saying that filters trap most of the harmful chemicals or that their grandfather smokes and he is 87 years old, thus somehow "proving" it's not always bad for you.
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
Suggests that people experience discomfort (dissonance) whenever they are confronted with cognitions about some aspect of their behavior that is inconsistent with their self- concept. We are motivated to reduce this dissonance by either changing our behavior or by finding ways to justify our past behavior, bringing it into line with a general view.
Self-discrepancy Theory
Suggests that people will behave in a way that reflects a need to maintain a sense of consistency among their various beliefs and perceptions about themselves.
Self-evaluation Maintenance Theory
Suggests that dissonance is produced in interpersonal relationships whenever someone close to us outperforms us on a task that is highly relevant to our self-definition.
Self-affirmation Theory
Argues that people are flexible at dealing with threats to their self-esteem. When dissonance cannot be reduced by directly eliminating a specific threat to their self-esteem, people can feel better about themselves by affirming their strengths or abilities in some other area.
Self-verification Theory
Suggests that the need to bolster our self-esteem sometimes conflicts with the need to verify our self-views. Because people with negative self-views fear that other people might discover that they are not who they appear to be, they will frequently prefer feedback that confirms their low opinion of themselves to feedback that is self-enhancing
When do we experience dissonance? (3 seperate times...)
*Dissonance inevitably occurs after a person makes an important decision.
*Another major source of dissonance takes place when people exert effort to attain something that turns out not to be worth the effort.
*Occurs when people commit foolish, immoral, or absurd acts for little reward or refrain from performing a desirable act for no good reason.
Why Would Anyone Want to Maintain a Poor Self-Image?
Research on self-verification theory suggests that the need to bolster our self-esteem sometimes conflicts with the need to verify our self-views. Because people with negative self-views fear that other people might discover that they are not who they appear to be, they will frequently prefer feedback that confirms their low opinion of themselves to feedback that is self-enhancing.
What is a cognitively based attitude?
It is based mostly on people's beliefs and thoughts about the attitude object.
What is an affectively based attitude?
It is based more on people's emotions and values towards attitude object; it can be created through classical conditioning or operant conditioning.
What is a behaviorally based attitude?
It is based on people's actions toward attitude object.
Once an attitude exists, it can exist on two levels. Explicit attitudes are...
Ones that people consciously endorse and can easily report
Once an attitude exists, it can exist on two levels. Implicit attitudes are
Involuntary, uncontrollable, and at times, unconscious
How do attitudes change?
Attitudes change when people engage in counterattitudinal advocacy for low external justification. When this occurs, people find internal justification for their behavior, bringing their attitudes in line with their behavior. Attitudes can also change in response to a persuasive communication.
Peripheral Route in Persuasion
People will take the peripheral route to persuasion when they either do not want to pay close attention to the arguments or cannot do so. Under these conditions, they are persuaded by such peripheral cues as the attractiveness of the speaker or the length of the speech
Centeral Route in Persuasion
People will take the central route to persuasion when they have both the motivation and the ability to pay close attention to the arguments. This is likely to occur when the topic of the communication is high in personal relevance or when people are high in the need for cognition.
Classical Conditioning
A stimulus that elicits an emotional response is accompanied by a neutral stimulus that does not until eventually the neutral stimulus elicits the emotional response by istelf. <Pavlov's Salvating Dog Study>
Operant Conditioning
Behaviors that we freely choose to perform become more or less frequent, depending on whether they are followed by a reward or punishment.
How Can One Resist Persuasive Messages?
*Attitude inoculation is the technique whereby people are exposed to small doses of arguments against their position, making it easier for them to refute these arguments when they hear the arguments later.
*Another way to make people resistant is to warn them in advance that someone will be trying to change their attitudes
Reactance Theory
People experience an unpleasant state called reactance when their freedom of choice is threatened. One way people can reduce reactance is to perform the behavior that was threatened.
When Will Attitudes Predict Behavior?
Attitudes predict spontaneous behaviors only when they are relatively accessible. When attitudes are inaccessible, behavior is more likely to be influenced by situational and social factors.
Heuristic-Systematic Model of Persuasion
When people take the peripheral rote to persuasion, they often use heuristics
What are the 2 main reasons people conform?
Because of informational and normative social influences.
Who says what to whom? <Who = the Communicator>
Credible speakers as well as attractive speakers persuade people more
What says what to whom? <What = the Message>
*People are more persuaded by messages that do not seem to be designed to influence them.
*It is best to present a two-sided communicaton. Two-sided work better if you are sure to refute the arguments on the other side
*If the speeches are to be given back to back and there will be a delay before people have to make up their minds, it is best to go first <primacy effect>. If there is a delay between the speeches and people will make up their minds right after hearing the second one, it is best to go last <recency effect>.
What says what to whom? <Whom = the Audience>
*An audience that is distracted during the persuasive communication will often be persuaded more than one that is not.
*People low in intelligence tend to be more influenceable, as well as people with moderate self-esteem.
*People are particularly susceptible to attitude change during the ages of 18 to 25 and 60+.
*Don't tell people you're about to persuade them.
Informational social influence occurs when?
*People do not know what is the correct (or best) thing to do or say <Ambigous Situations>
*Crisis Situations
*Presence of Experts
<Informational social influence usually results in private acceptance, wherein people genuinely believe in what other people are doing or saying>
Contagion
occurs when emotions and behaviors spread rapidly throughout a group; one example is research on mass psychogenic illness
Normative social influence occurs when?
We change our behavior to match that of others not because they seem to know better what is going on, but because we want to remain a member of the group, continue to gain the advantages of group membership, and avoid the pain of ridicule and rejection <Normative social influence usually results in public compliance, but not private acceptance of other people's ideas and behaviors>
Social Impact Theory
Specifies when normative social influence is most likely to occur by referring to the strength, immediacy, and size of the group.
Social Facilitation (When People's Individual Efforts Can Be Measured...)
Their performance is enhanced on simple tasks, but impaired on complex tasks
Social Loafing (When Individual Efforts Cannot Be Measured...)
Performance is impaired on simple tasks, but enhanced on complex tasks
Deindividuation
Which is the loosening of normal constraints on behavior when people are in crowds, leading to an increase in impulsive and deviant acts.
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions
Groups make better decisions than individuals if they are good at pooling ideas and listening to the expert members of the group
Process Loss Occurs When? (3 Various Instances...)
*Groups often focus on the information they have in common and fail to share unique information
*The most expert individual is unable to sway the rest of the group or isn't listened to what-so-ever
*GroupThink
Transactive Memory
Which is the combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual.
GroupThink
Which occurs when maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity becomes more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner. Group polarization causes groups to make more extreme decisions in the direction toward which its members were initially leaning; these group decisions can be more risky or more cautious, depending on which attitude is valued in the group.
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Leadership performance depends both on whether a group has a task oriented leader or a relationship oriented leader and on whether the work environment is high or low in situational control
Group Decisions vs. Individual Decisions
Groups make better decisions than individuals if they are good at pooling ideas and listening to the expert members of the group
Process Loss Occurs When? (3 Various Instances...)
*Groups often focus on the information they have in common and fail to share unique information
*The most expert individual is unable to sway the rest of the group or isn't listened to what-so-ever
*GroupThink
Transactive Memory
Which is the combined memory of two people that is more efficient than the memory of either individual.
GroupThink
Which occurs when maintaining group cohesiveness and solidarity becomes more important than considering the facts in a realistic manner. Group polarization causes groups to make more extreme decisions in the direction toward which its members were initially leaning; these group decisions can be more risky or more cautious, depending on which attitude is valued in the group.
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Leadership performance depends both on whether a group has a task oriented leader or a relationship oriented leader and on whether the work environment is high or low in situational control
How Can One Avoid GroupThink?
*Leader remains impartial
*Solicit outside opinions
*Subgroup discussions
*Secret ballots
*Devil's advocate
Great Person Theory <In the end it was found that this theory didnt't have much truth to it...>
Certain key personality traits make a good leader <knowing what a great leader looks like is knowing their personality>
Why is Dissonance Useful?
To maintain a stable positive self-image
Counterattitudinal Advocacy
It occurs when we claim to have an opinion or attitude that differs from our true beliefs.
Elaboration Likelihood Method
An explanation of the two ways in which persuasive communications can cause attitude change: centerally, when people are motivated and have the ability to pay attention to the arguments in the communication, and periperally, when people do not pay attention to the arguments but are instead swayed by surface characteristics
Injunctive Norms
People's perceptions of what behaviors are approved or disapproved of by others
Attitude Inoculation
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their positions
Descriptive Norms
People's perceptions of how people actually behave in given situations, regardless of whether the bavior is approved or disapproved of by others
Theory of Planned Behavior has 3 Contributing Factors to it...What are They?
*Attitude Toward a Behavior
*Subjective Norms
*Perceived Behavior Control