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 Correlation and Causeation he relationship between two variables. It allows you to predict the future Just bc 2 var. corr. does not mean that one var. causes changes in the other. Negitive & Positive Correlations Neg. Oppisit effects, Pos-similar effects Independent Variables manipulated of changed (the assumed cause) Dependednt Variable Allowed to vary freeely. It is ovserved and measured (the assumed effect) How to conduct a good experiment Rule 1: Use control Groups(allows us to make comparisons) Rule 2: Random assignment(prevent bias) Rule 3: Expectency Effect(single-blind, double-blind) Rule 4: Statistics(Descriptive/Inferential) Rule 4: Rule 3 Single-Blind Double-Blind Single-Blind: experiment, subject does not know what happened can't assume effects. Double-Blind: Subject and Experimenter don't know details. Experimenter can't subtly influence results. Rule 4 Descripitive Statistics Inferential Statistics Des.: One used to sumerize the data you have obtained Inf.: Used to make generalizations beyond the observed data Satistical Significance In any research results may be due to chance. Psychological Tests Tests are widely used to measure Characteristics of human behavior Standardization The making of a solution of definite strength so that it may be used for comparison and in tests. Reliablity The quality of the test doesn't change Validity Measurement of the relationship of the test question to the acutal subject behavior Criterian Validity Tested by correlations btw the test behavior Id the part of the psyche, residing in the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses that seek satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle and are modified by the ego and the superego before they are given overt expression. Superego (establised at 4/5yrs of age)the part of the personality representing the conscience, formed in early life by internalization of the standards of parents and other models of behavior. Ego the part of the psychic apparatus that experiences and reacts to the outside world and thus mediates between the primitive drives of the id and the demands of the social and physical environment. Repression The unconscious exclusion of painful impulses, desires, or fears from the conscious mind. Denial An unconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to acknowledge painful realities, thoughts, or feelings. Regression Reversion to an earlier or less mature pattern of feeling or behavior. Projection the tendency to ascribe to another person feelings, thoughts, or attitudes present in oneself, or to regard external reality as embodying such feelings, thoughts, etc., in some way. Reaction Formation A defense mechanism by which an objectionable impulse is expressed in an opposite or contrasting attitude or behavior. Displacement A psychological defense mechanism in which there is an unconscious shift of emotions, affect, or desires from the original object to a more acceptable or immediate substitute. Stage 1: Oral: 0-1yrs mouth is focus of sensation Stage 2: Anal : 2-3yrs concern w/control of boily wastes Stage 3: Phallic(Oedipal) 3-5yrs Development of the oedipal complex first onset of sexuality, sexual feelings are focused on parents Stage 4: Latency 6yrs-puberty In psychoanalytic theory, the stage in psychosexual development, extending from about age 5 to age 12, when overt sexual interest is repressed or subliminated and an individual focuses on skills and activities with members of his or her own sex. Stage 5: Genital-Puberty and beyond the final stage of psychosexual development, in which a person achieves an affectionate, mature relationship with a sexual partner. (anal and oral fixation)