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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the modification of preexisting behavior and understanding
classical conditioning
a procedure in which a neutral stimulis is paired with a stimulis that elicts a reflexive response until the neutral stimulus alone comes to elict a similar response
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that elicts a response without conditioning
unconditioned response
the automatic, unlearned reflexive reaction to a stimulus
Conditioned stimulus (Cs)
an originally neutral stimulus that now elictsa conditioned response
Condtioned Response (CR)
the response elicted by the conditioned stimulus
the gradual disappearnce of a conmdtional response
the relearning of a conditioned response following an extinction
Spontaneous Recovery
the temporary reapperance of a conditioned response after extinction
Stimulus Generalization
a process in which a conditioned response is elicted by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus
Stimulus Discrimination
A process through which people learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriatly to each one
Second order Conditioning
a process in which a conditioned stimulus acts like an unconditioned stimulus creating conditioned stimuli out of events associated with it
reduced responsiveness to a repeated stimulus
Law of effect
a law stating that if response made in the prescense of a particular stimulus is rewarded the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered again
Operant Conditioning
a process in which responses are learned on the basis of their rewarding or punishing concequences
a response that has some effet on the world
a stimulus event that increases the probability that the response immediatly preceding it will occur again
Positive Reinforcers
stimuli that strengthen a respose if they follow that response
negative Reinforcers
the removal of unpleasent stimuli such as pain that strengthens responses that precede the removal
Escape Conditioning
the process of learning responses that terminate an aversive stimulus
the reienforcement of responses that come successivly closer to some desired response
Primary rienforcers
events or stimuli that satisfy physiological needs basic to survival
Secondary Rienforcers
rewards that people or animals learn to like
Partial Reinforcement extinction Effect
a phenomenon in which behaviors learned under partial reienforcement schedule are more difficult to extingish than those learned on a continous rienforcemenrt schedule
the presentation of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a pleasent one following some behavior
Learned helplessness
a process in which a person or animal stops trying to eexert control after experience suggests that no control is possible
Latent learning
learning that is not demostarted at the time it occurs
cognitive map
a mental representation of the enviroment
an understamding about what is required to porduce a desired effect
Observational learning
learning by watching the behavior of others
Vicarious Conditioning
a Kind of observational learning though which a person is influenced by watching or hearing about the consequences of others behavior