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24 Cards in this Set

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developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
zygote
the fertilized egg; it enters a 2-week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
embryo
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilisation through the second month.
fetus
the developing human organism from about 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month.
fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
teratogens
agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalitites in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misproportions.
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple.
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeted exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
maturatoin
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
maturatoin
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information.
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
accomodation
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new information.
cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
object prmanence
the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
sensorimotor stage
in piaget's theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressiions and motor activities.
preoperational stage
in piaget's theory, the stage (from about 2 to 6 or 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet compreend the mental operations of concrete logic.
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects.
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, the inability of the preoperational child to take another's point of view.
theory of mind
people's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
autism
a disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts.