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32 Cards in this Set

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NATIVISTS
EMPHASIZED GENES AND INBORN CHARECTERISTICS, OR NATURE
EMPIRICISTS
FOCUSED ON LEARNING AND EXPERIENCE, OR NURTURE
EVOLUTIONARY PSYCHOLOGY
A FIELD OF PSYCHOLOGY EMPHASIZING EVOLUTIONARY MECHANISMS THAT MAY HELP EXPLAIN HUMAN COMMONALITIES IN COGNITION, DEVELOPMENT, EMOTION, SOCIAL PRACTICES, AND OTHER AREA OF BEHAVIOR
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FIELD OF STUDY CONCERNED WITH THE GENETIC BASES OF INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR AND PERSONALITY
GENES
THE FUNCTIONAL UNITS OF HEREDITY: THEY ARE COMPOSED OF DNA AND SPECIFY THE STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
CHROMOSOMES
WITHIN EVERY CELL, ROD-SHAPED STRUCTURES THAT CARRY GENES
DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)
THE CHROMOSOMAL MOLECULETHAT TRANSFERS GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS BY WAY OF CODED INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE STRUCTURE OF PROTEINS
GENOME
THE FULL SET OF GENES IN EACH CELL OF AN ORGANISM (WITH THE EXCEPTION OF SPERM AND EGG CELLS)
LINKAGE STUDIES
STUDIES THAT LOOK FOR PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE OF GENETIC MARKERS IN LARGE FAMILIES IN WHICH A PARTICULAR CONDITION IS COMMON
GENETIC MARKERS
A SEGMENT OF DNA THAT VARIES AMONG INDIVIDUALS, HAS A KNOWN LOCATION ON A CHROMOSOME, AND CAN FUNCTION AS A GENETIC LANDMARK FOR A GENE INVOLVED IN A PHYSICAL OR MENTAL CONDITION
EVOLUTION
A CHANGE IN GENE FREQUENCIES WITHIN A POPULATION OVER MANY GENERATIONS: A MECHANISM BY WHICH GENETICALLY INFLUENCED CHARACTERISTICS OF A POPULATION MAY CHANGE
MUTATE
DURING THE DIVISION OF THE CELLS THAT PRODUCE SPERM AND EGGS, IF AN ERROR OCCURS IN THE COPYING OF THE ORIGINAL DNA SEQUENCE, GENES CAN SPONTANEOUSLY CHANGE
NATURAL SELECTION
THE EVOLUTIONARY PROCESS IN WHICH INDIVIDUALS WITH GENETICALLY INFLUENCED TRAITS THAT ARE ADAPTIVE IN A PARTICULAR ENVIRONMENT TEND TO SURVIVE AND TO REPRODUCE IN GREATER NUMBERS, THAN DO OTHER INDIVIDUALS: AS A RESULT, THEIR TRAITS BECOME MORE COMMON IN THE POPULATION
CHARLES DARWIN
BRITISH NATURALIST
REALIZED THAT A SPECIES' CHARACTERISTICS MUST SOMEHOW BE TRANSMITTED BIOLOGICALLY FROM ONE GENERATION TO THE NEXT
MENTAL MODULES
DEVELOPED AS A COLLECTION OF SPECIALIZED AND INDEPENDENT "MODULES" TO HANDLE SPECIFIC SURVIVAL PROBLEMS, SUCH AS THE NEED TO FIND FOOD OR FIND A MATE
LANGUAGE
A SYSTEM THAT COMBINES MEANINGLESS ELEMENTS SUCH AS SOUNDS OR GESTURES TO FORM STRUCTURED UTTERANCES THAT CONVEY MEANING
SURFACE STRUCTURE
THE WAY THE SENTENCE IS ACTUALLY SPOKEN OR SIGNED
DEEP STRUCTURE
HOW THE SENTENCE IS TO BE UNDERSTOOD
SYNTAX
RULES OF GRAMMAR
LANGUAGE ACQUISITION DEVICE
ACCORDING TO MANY PSYCHOLINGUISTS, AN INNATE MENTAL MODULE THAT ALLOQS YOUNG CHILDREN TO SEVELOP LANGUAGE IF THEY ARE EXPOSED TO AN ADEQUATE SAMPLING OF CONVERSATION
UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR
BRAINS ARE SENSITIVE TO THE CORE FEATURES COMMOM TO ALL LANGUAGES
PSYCHOLINGUISTS
RESEARCHERS WHO STUDY THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LANGUAGE
OVERREGULARIZATIONS
REDUCE A PARENT'S SENTENCE TO THEIR OWN TWO WORDS AND MAKE MANY CHARMING ERRORS THAT AN ADULT WOULD NOT
COMPUTER NEUTRAL NETWORKS
MATHEMATICA MODELS OF THE BRAIN THAT :LEARN" BY ADJUSTING THE CONNECTIONS AMONG HYPOTHETICAL NEURONS IN RESPNSE TO INCOMING DATA
CRITICAL PERIOD
CHILDREN MAY LEARN WORDS AND BE ABLE TO USE SIMPLE SENTENCES, BUT THEY RARELY SPEAK NORMALLY OR CATCH UP GRAMMATICALLY
SOCIOBIOLOGY
AN INTERDISCIPLINARY FIELD THAT EMPHASIZES EVOLUTIONARY EXPLANATIONS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR IN ANIMALS, INCLUDING HUMAN BEINGS
SOCIAL DARWINISM
NOTION THAT THE WEALTHY AND SUCCESSFUL ARE MORE "REPRODUCTIVELY FIT" THAN OTHER PEOPLE
HERITABILITY
GIVES AN ESTIMATE OF THE PROPORTION OF THE TOTAL VARIANCE IN A TRAIT THAT IS ATTRIBUTABLE TO GENETIC VARIATION WITHIN A GROUP
IDENTICAL TWINS
MONOZYGOTIC
DEVELOP WHEN A FERTILIZED EGG DIVIDES INTO TWO PARTS THAT THEN DEVELOP AS TWO SEPERATE EMBRYOS
FRATERNAL TWINS
DIZYGOTIC
DEVELOP WHEN A WOMAN'S OVARIES RELEASE TWO EGGS INSTEAD OF ONE AND EACH EGG IS FERTILIZED BY A DIFFERENT SPERM
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT (IQ)
USUAL MEASURE OF INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONIND, OR SCORE
EUGENICS
AIMED TO "IMPROVE" THE SPECIES THROUGH FORCED STERILIZATION OF LOW-IQ PEOPLE