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44 Cards in this Set

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A kind of emotional attachment characterized by feelings of trust and companionship; this type of love is marked by a combination of intimacy and commitment, but passion may be lacking.
Compassionate love
An intense emotional state characterized by a powerful longing to be with a specific person; this type of love is marked by a combination of intimacy and passion, but commitment may be lacking.
Passionate Love
The form of compliance that occurs when people respond to the orders of an authority figure.
Obedience
The tendency for members of a group to become so interested in seeking a consensus of opinion that they start to ignore and even suppress dissenting views.
Groupthink
The tendency for a group’s dominant point of view to become stronger and more extreme with time. For example – if you join a group who somewhat believes that corporate crime is a big problem, as time goes on your group will become more convinced of that position.
Group Polarization
A group of individuals with whom one shares features in common, or with whom one identifies
In Group
The tendency to comply with the wishes of the group; when people conform, their opinions, feelings, and behaviors generally start to move toward the group norm.
Conformity
The loss of individuality, or depersonalization, that comes from being in a group. Often people are more willing to do things when they undergo this because they feel a lessening of responsibility. Example – Trashing stuff at a party.
Deindividualization
The tendency to put out less effort when working in a group compared to when working alone.
Social Loafing
The idea that when people know (or think) that others are present in a situation, they allow their sense of responsibility for action to diffuse, or spread out widely, among those who are present.
Diffusion of Responsibility
The reluctance to come to the aid of a person in need when other people are present.
Bystander Effect
Acting in a way that shows unselfish concern for the welfare of others. Helping others even though it might put us at risk.
Altruism
The impairment in performance that is sometimes found when an individual performs in the presence of others.
Social Interference
The enhancement in performance that is sometimes found when we perform in the presence of others.
Social facilitations
The study of how the behaviors and thoughts of individuals are affected by the presence of others.
Social Influence
The idea that people use observations of their own behavior as a basis for inferring their internal beliefs. For instance – people asked to sign a petition for safe driving were then asked a few weeks later to put a huge ugly safe driving sign in their front lawn. Participants were 3 times more likely to do it if they had been asked to sign the petition earlier than those who were being approached for the first time.
Self-perception theory
The tension produced when people act in a way that is inconsistent with their attitudes. If the discrepancy between what you believe and how you act is great, you will either (1) change your behavior, or (2) change your beliefs.
Cognitive Dissonance
Features of the person who is presenting a persuasive message, such as his or her attractiveness, amount of power, or fame.
Source Characteristics
Operates when we are either unable to process the message carefully or are unmotivated to do so. For example – being influenced by factors that have nothing to do with the product, like when we see beer commercials with talking frogs and we go out and buy that beer. When our motivation is low, we are much more likely to be persuaded by source characteristics – things such as celebrity, attractiveness or power.
Perepheral Route to persuasion
Occurs when we’re motivated and inclined to process an incoming persuasive communication with care and attention. For example – changing one’s beliefs on abortion after hearing a speech on it, then carefully weighing your opinion based on the information you’ve been presented with. These types of attitude changes are generally more stable and long-lasting.
Central Route to Persuasion
A model proposing two primary routes to persuasion and attitude change: a central route, which operates when we are motivated and focusing our attention on the message, and a peripheral route, which operates when we are either unmotivated to process the message or are unable to do so.
Elaboration Likelihood Method
Predisposition to act toward the object in a particular way. For example – You may spend every Sunday looking in the classifieds and complain about your landlord to anyone who will listen, because the way you act toward the situation has changed.
Behavioral component of attitude
Made up of the feelings that the object produces; and the behavioral component is a predisposition to act toward the object in a particular way. For example – When you see or think about your landlord, you get angry and slightly sick to your stomach.
Affective component of attitude
Represents what people know or believe about the object of their attitude. For example – knowing that your landlord has raised the rent 3 times in the last year, enters your apartment without asking permission, and he won’t let you keep your cat without a huge pet deposit.
Cognitive component of attitude
A positive or negative evaluation or belief held about something, which in turn may affect one’s behavior; these are typically broken down into cognitive, affective, and behavior components.
Attitude
The tendency to make internal attributions about one’s own behavior when the outcome is positive and to blame the situation when one’s behavior leads to something negative. For example – praising our hard work when we get an A on a psychology test, but bitching because the test was flawed if we get a 49/50.
Self-serving bias
The overall tendency to attribute our own behavior to external sources but the behaviors of others to internal sources. For example – justifying the fact that we’re tailgating someone because we’re late, or the other person is driving slow because they’re a jerk or something like that.
Actor-observer bias
When people seek to interpret someone else’s behavior, they tend to overestimate the influence of internal personal factors and underestimate the role of situational factors. For example – assuming the guy who is tailgating you is a jerk, instead of looking at the situation and thinking that maybe he has a pregnant wife in the backseat and needs to get her to the hospital.
Fundamental Attribution Error
Attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an internal personality trait or disposition. This is common when the consistency of a behavior is high but its distinctiveness and consensus are low.
Internal Attribution
Attributing the cause of a person’s behavior to an external event or situation in the environment.
External Attribution
Tells us whether other people show similar reactions when they are exposed to the same causal event.
Consensus
Provides an indication of whether the change occurs uniquely in the presence of the event.
Distinctiveness
Trying to determine whether the change occurs regularly when causal event is present.
Consistency
Determines whether one event is causal by whether or not it happens at the same time as the occurring behavior, and whether it demonstrates consistency, distinctiveness and consensus.
Covariation Model of Attribution
The inference processes people use to assign cause and effect to a behavior.
Attributions
Behaviors that are directed against members of a group
Discrimination
Positive or negative evaluations of a group and its members.
Prejudice
A condition in which our expectations about the actions of another person actually lead that person to behave in the expected way.
Self-fulfilling prophecy effect
Assume we store memories of particular individuals and these individual memories form the basis of stereotypes
Exemplar theories of stereotypes
Assume we store abstract representations of the typical features of a group, then we judge particular individuals based on their similarity to the prototype.
Prototype theories of stereotypes
The collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members; these commonly include ideas based on gender, race and age.
Stereotypes
A general knowledge structure, stored in long-term memory, that relates to social experiences or people
Social schema
The information we use to develop a first impression. We use this because no other information is available.
Physical impression
The study of how people use cognitive processes – such as perception, memory, thought, and emotion – to help make sense of other people as well as themselves.
Social cognition