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32 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The view that (a) knowledge comes from experience via the senses, and (b) science flourishes through observation and experiment
An early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind.
A school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish
The science of behavior and mental processes
Nature-Nurture Issue
The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Applied Research
Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems
Clinical Psychology
A branch of psychology that studies, assesses and treats people with psychological disorders
A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy
Hindsight Bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would ahve foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon.)
Critical thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions
an explanation using an intergrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Operational definition
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures.
repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Case study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
a technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them.
All the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study. (Note: Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population)
random sample
a sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in naturally occuring situations without trying to maniuplate and control the situation
Correlation coefficient
a statistical measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other
illusory correlation
the perception of a relationship where none exists
a research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors (independent variables) to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process (the dependent variable). By random assignment of participants, the experiment controls other relevant factors.
an inert substance or condition that may be administered instead of a presumed active agent, such as a drug, to see if it triggers the effects believed to characterize the active agent
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluations studies.
placebo effect
any effect on behavior caused by a placebo
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes participants to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
random assignment
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
dependent variable
the experimental factor- in psychology, the behavior or mental process - that is being measured; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
a study method incorporating five steps: Survey, question, read, rehearse, review