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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Dualism
2 distinct conjoined entities: material body and immaterial soul, control behavior
Contrast of Dualism?
"Founder" of Dualism
Rene Descartes
Believed non-human animals do not have souls and reflexes involuntary respond to simuli
Define Materialism
The spirit or soul is a meaningless concept and nothing exist but matter and enery by physical processes with body by brain
Believed in Materialism?
Thomas Hobbes
Define Empiricism
Belief that all human knowledge and though derive from sensory experience (i.e. vision, hearing, touch, ect.)
Contrast of Empricisim
Define Congnitive psychology
natural divisions may exist among various mental processes and that the mind can be understood by indentifying those basic processes and discovering how they interact.
Charles Darwin's Idea?
living things have evolved from evolution, natural selection of organisms survive and reproduced
Why is William Wundt the founder of scientific psychology?
1. wrote the 1st book of psychology that defined it as a science
2. opened the first university-based laboratory of psychology
Define structuralism
Identifying the basic elements of the mind and to determine how those elements combine with one another to produce more complex thoughts
Founder of Structuralism
Edward Titchener
Define Introspection
Titchener's method to indentify the elements of a sensory experience. To look inward, to examine one's own conscious experience.
4 basic dimensions of every sensation?
Quality, intensity, duration, clarity
The problem of introspection?
It is a private technique and sciences requires a public technique
Define a public technique
One that produces datat that can be observed by outsiders, not just by the individual user of the procedure
Oppositiion of Titchener's perspecitve
Gestalt psychology
What would contemporary psychologists be most likely to choose as the main limitation of introspections as a data-collection technique?
Its data are not available to anyone but the individual producing the data
William James was a great thinker, writer, and teacher who helped make psychology known to the intellectual world. Jame's psychological perspectivie was known as?
What type of psychologist would focus on how people adapt to their surroundings?
Functionally oriented psychologist
Which psychologist proposed that the study of consciousness should be replaced by the study of behavior?
John B. Watson
What is social psychology?
Concentration of how people are influenced by others at a given moment
What is cultural psychology?
Concentration of how cultures evolve over time and influence the psychology of their people
Define actualizing tendancy?
an inborn set of drives that go beyond basic animal needs and lead the individual to engage in creative activities
Define humanistic psychology
theories and clinical practices that centered on people's conscious understanding of themselves and capacity for self-control and presents an optimistic view of human nature
What is true of both Watson's and Skinner's versions of behaviorism?
Both theorists argued that unobservable events or mediating concepts, such as mental processes, are not useful as explanatory constructs in psychology
Which psychologist would be most likely to conduct research with animals?
A behavioral psychologist
Describe a Cultural psychologist
research on differences among people living in different parts of the worlds and how their thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by where they live.
What does not reflect the viewpoint of materialism?
Even though the sould is intangible, its influence on the body is tagible and can therefore be studied scientifically.
Define functionalism
To understand a mind, one must look at the whoel thing and it's larger parts to see its full purpose.
Founder of Functionalism
William James
What is Gestalt psychology
That the mind must be understood in terms of organized wholes and not elementary parts.
Define behaviorism
Subject of study is obersvalbe behavior not the mind and the it should be understood in terms of its relationship to observable events in the environment rather than in terms of hypothetical events withing the individual
Who is John Watson and his arguement?
The founder of behaviorism; argued that all behavior is essentially reflexive as responses to events.
What is S-R psychology?
Watson's brand of behaviorism
S: stimulus
R: response
Who is B.F. Skinner and his methods?
A behaviorist who developed a new way to study animals and describe the learning processes
Describe Skinner's emphasis?
That stimuli are consequense of reponses: Operante responses: any behavioral actiontaht operates on the environment to produce a consequence like an electric shock
Define ethology?
The study of animal behavior in the natural environment.
Founder of Ethology
Konrad Lorenz
Define physiological psychology
Aka: behavioral neuroscience
the attempt to understand the physcioloical mechanisms, in the brain and eslewhere, that organize and control bejavior.
Who is Sigmund Freud?
He believed behavior was altered due to disturbing membories were buried in the unconscious mind.
Freud's developer: treament for the unconsious mind. but leaves too much room for the analyst's subjective interpretation.
What did William James do?
Found the perspective of functionalism, great thinker, writer, and teacher
What is the influence of computers on congintive psychology?
This shows how fast people respond the colors and information from computers, ect.
Difference between Watson's and Skinner's versions of behaviorism?
Watson's believed stimuli that precede responses and Skinner believed stimuli are consequences of responses
Difference between structuralism and functionalism
Things don't have to be as analyzed in a structured way for functionalism, they can be understood by its purpose
Differences between cultural psychology and social psychology
cultural is how people are by the teachings of their cultural and social is how people are by the teachings of different people around them
Difference between ethology and behaviorism
how animals/humans behavior is a stimuli for a response and ethology is how animals are w/ their environment