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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Psychology?
The scientific study of the causes of behaviour; also, the application of the findings of psychological research to the solution of problems
Causal event
an event that causes another event to occur
Physiological psychology
- the branch of psychology that studies the physiological basis of behavior ( they study most behavior phenomena that can be observed in non-human subjects)
Comparative psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the behaviors of a variety of organisms in an attempt to understand the adaptive and functional significance of the behaviors and their relation to evolution
Behavior analysis
the branch of psychology that studies the effect of the environment on behavior—primarily, the effects of the consequences of behavior on the behaviors themselves (eg. Learning and motivation)
Behavior genetics
the branch of psychology that studies the role of genetics on behavior
Cognitive psychology
the branch of the psychology that studies complex behaviors and mental processes such as perception, attention, learning and memory, verbal behavior, concept formation, and problem solving
Cognitive neuroscience
the branch of psychology that attempts to understand cognitive psychological functions by studying the brain mechanisms that are responsible for them.
Developmental psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the changes in behavioral, perceptual, and cognitive capacities of organisms as a function of age and experience
Social psychology
the branch of psychology devoted to the study of the effects people have on each other’s behaviour
Personality psychology
the branch of psychology that attempts to categorize and understand the causes of individual differences in patterns of behavior
Evolutionary psychology
the branch of psychology that explains behavior in terms of adaptive advantages those specific behaviors provided during the evolution of a species. Evolutionary psychologies use natural selection as a guiding principle
Cross-cultural psychology
the branch of psychology that studies the effects of culture on behavior
Clinical psychology
the branch of psychology devoted to the investigation and treatment of abnormal behavior and mental disorders
Clinical neuropsychologist
a psychologist who specializes in identification and treatment of the behavioral consequence of nervous system disorders and injuries
Health psychologist
a psychologist who works to promote behaviors and lifestyles that improve and maintain health and prevent illness
School psychologist
a psychologist who deals with behavioral problems of students at school
Consumer psychologist
a psychologist who helps organizations that manufacture products or that buy products or services
Community psychologist
a psychologist who works for the welfare of individuals in the social system, attempting to improve the system rather than treating people as problems
Organizational psychologist
a psychologist who works to increase efficiency and effectiveness of organizations
Engineering psychologist
a psychologist who studies the ways that people and machines work together and helps design machines that are safer and easier to operate
Forensic psychologist
a psychologist who studies human behavior as it may relate to the legal system and to matters involving criminal justice
the belief that all animals and all moving objects possess spirits providing their motive force
an automatic response to a stimulus, such as the blink reflex to the sudden unexpected approach of an object toward the eyes
the philosophical belief that reality consists of mind and matter
a relatively simple system that works on known principles and is able to do at least some of the things that a more complex system can do
the philosophical view that all knowledge is obtained through the senses
a philosophical believe that reality can be known only through an understanding of the physical world, of which the mind is a part
Doctrine of specific nerve energies
Johannes Muller’s observation that different nerve fibres convey specific information from one part of the body to the brain or from the brain to one part of the body
Experimental ablation
the removal or destruction of a portion of the brain of an experimental animal for the purpose of studying the functions of that region
the branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience
the system of experimental psychology that began with Wundt; it emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and perception
literally, “looking within,” in an attempt to describe one’s own memories, perceptions cognitive processes, or motivations
- the strategy of understanding a species’ structural or behavioural features by attempting to establish their usefulness with respect to survival and reproductive success
a movement in psychology that asserts that the only proper subject matter for scientific study in psychology is observable behavior
Law of effect
Thorndike’s observation that stimuli that occur as a consequence of a response can increase or decrease the likelihood of making that response again
Humanistic psychology
an approach to the study of human behavior that emphasizes human experience, choice and creativity, self-realization, and positive growth
Gestalt psychology
a movement in psychology that emphasized that cognitive processes could be understood by studying their organization, no their elements
Information processing
an approach used by cognitive psychologists to explain the workings of the brain; information received through the senses is processed by systems of neurons in the brain