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34 Cards in this Set

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A discredited psuedoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that personality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
phrenology
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain
cortical localization

also called

localization of function
An instrument that produces a graphic record of the brain's electrical activity by using electrodes placed on the scalp.
electroencephalograph
An invasive imaging technique that provides color-coded images of brain activity by tracking the brain's use of a radioactively tagged compound, such as glucose, oxygen, or a drug.
positron emission tomography
(PET scan)
A noninvasive imaging technique that produces highly details images of the brain using electromagnetic signals generated by the brain in response to magnetic fields.
magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI)
A noninvasive imaging technique that uses magnectic fields to map brain activity by measuring changes in the brain's blood flow and oxygen levels.
functional magnetic resonance imaging
(fMRI)
The study of the neural basis of cognitive process that integrates contributions from psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.
cognitive neuroscience
The development of new neurons.
neurogenesis
A region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and the midbrain.
brainstem
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
hindbrain
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life structures such as breathing and circulation.
medulla
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
pons
A large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination and maintaining posture and equilibrium.
cerebellum
A network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla the helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep.
reticular formation

also called

reticular activating system
The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory visual sensory information.
midbrain
An area of the midbrain that is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons.
substantia nigra
The largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes.
forebrain

also called

cerebrum
The wrinkled outer portion of the forebrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
cerebral cortex
The nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex.
cerebral hemispheres
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
corpus callosum
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex near the temples that is the primary recieving area for auditory information.
temporal lobe
An area on the back of each cerebral hemisphere that is the primary recieving area for visual information.
occipital lobe
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe that processes somatic sensations.
parietal lobe
The largest lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control.
frontal lobe
A group of forebrain structures that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.
limbic system
A curved forebrain structure that is part of the limbic systemand is involved in learning and forming new memories.
hippocampus
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex.
thalamus
A peanut-sized forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
hypothalamus
An almond-shaped forebrain structure that is part of the limbic system and is involved in emotion and memory.
amygdala
The notion that specific psychological or cognitive functions are processed primarily on one side of the brain.
lateralization of function
The partial or complete inability to articulate ideas or understand spoken or written language because of brain injury or damage.
aphasia
A surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum.
split-brain operation
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
functional plasticity
The brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
structural plasticity