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28 Cards in this Set

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Specialized branch of psychology that studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems.
biological psychology
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
neuroscience
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
neuron
Support cells that assist neurons by provideing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
glial cells
Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
sensory neuron
Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
motor neuron
Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next.
interneuron
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function, contains the cell's nucleus
cell body

or

_soma_
Multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and recieve information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
dendrites
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
axon
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increases their communication speed.
myelin sheath
A brief electrical impulse by which information in transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
action potential
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
stimulus threshold
State in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it recieves sufficient stimulation.
resting potential
Toilet analogy.
all-or-none law
The point of communication between two neurons.
synapse
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
synaptic gap
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
axon terminals
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
synaptic vesicles
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
neurotransmitters
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect adjoining neurons.
synaptic transmission
The process by which neurotransmitters detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
reuptake
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in memory function.
acetylcholine
(un-seet-ull-KO-leen)
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of bodily movement, though processes, and rewarding sensations.
dopamine
Neurotransmitter involved in sleep and emotions.
serotonin
Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
norepinephrine
(nor-ep-in-EF-rin)
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message.
GABA
(gamma-aminobutyric acid)
Neurotransmitters that regulate pain perceptions.
endorphins