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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Nature-Nurture controversy
ongoing dispute over the relative contributions of nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) to the development of behavior and mental processes
a process in which multiple facotrs mutually influence one another and the outcome - as in the interaction between heredity and environment
Basic research
research conducted to advance scientific knowledge rather than practical application
Applied research
research designed to solve practical problems
an interrelated set of concepts, which explains a body of data
a specific prediction about how one variable is related to another
Operational Definition
a precise description of how the variables in a study will be observed and measured
statistical procedure for combining and analyzing data from many studies
carefully controlled scientific procedure that determines whether variables manipulated by the experimenter have a casual effect on other variables
Double-Blind study
a procedure in which both the researcher and the participants are unaware (blind) of who is in the experimental or control group
an inactive substance or fake treatment used as a control technique, usually in drug research, or given by a medical practitioner to a patient
believing that one's culture is typical of all cultures; also, viewing one's own ethnic group (or culture) as central and "correct" and then judging the rest of the world according to this standard
Sample bias
occurs when research participants are not representative of the larger population
Random assignment
participants are assigned to experimental conditions on the basis of chance, thus minimizing the possibility of biases or preexisting differences in the groups
Descriptive research
research methods that observe and record behavior without producing casual explanations
Naturalistic observation
observing and recording behavior in the participant's natural state or habitat
Correlational research
any scientific study in which the researcher observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them
Correlation coefficient
a number that indicates the degree and direction of the relationship between the two variables
Biological research
scientific studies of the brain and other parts of the nervous system
Informed consent
participant's agreement to take part in a study after being told wha to expect
informing participants after the research about the purpose of the study, the nature of the anticipated results, and any deceptions used
Biopsychosocial model
a unifying theme of modern psychology, which considers biological, and social processes