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18 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a specialized cell that conducts impulses through the nervous system and contains three major parts--cell body, dendrites, and an axon.
cell body
the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and carries out the metabolic functions of the neuron.
in a neuron, the branchlike extentions of the cell body that recieve signals from other neurons.
the slender, tail-like extention of the neuron that transmits signals to the dendrites or the cell body of other neurons and to muscles, glands, and other parts of the body.
Glial cells
specialized cells in the brain and spinal cord that hold neurons together, remove waste products such as dead neurons and preform other manufacturing, nourishing, and clean-up tasks.
in the junction where the axon terminal of a sending neuron communicates with a recieving neuron across the synaptic cleft,
the capability of being penetrated of passed through
Resting potential
the slight negative electrical potential of the axon membrane of a neuron at rest, about 70 millivolts.
action potential
the sudden reversal of the resting potential, which initiates the firing of a neuron.
Afferent neurons
(sensory) relay massages from the sense organs and receptors --eyes, ears, nose, mouth and skin to the brain of spinal cord.
Efferent Neurons
convey signals from the central nervous system to the glands and the muscles, enabling the body to move
thousands of times more numorous than other two neurons, carry information btw neurons in th brain and btw neurons in the spinal cord.
"all or none" law
a neuron either fires completely or does not fire at all
Refractory period
immediately after the neuron is fired, during which it cannot fire again for 1 to 2 milliseconds.
what is the neurological distinction btw feeling anxious about being disciplined by your boss for being late tp work nad running for your life to avoid being the victim of a criminal attacker?
The answer lies in the number of neurons firing at the same time and their rate of firing. A strong stimulus may trigger thousands of neurons firing at the same time.
Myelin Sheath
the white, fatty coating wrapping around some axons that acts as insulation and enables impulses to travel much faster. The electrical impuse is retriggered/regenerated at each node (or naked gap) on the axon. (MS) involves deterioration of this fatty covering.
a chemical substance that is released into the synaptic cleft from the axon terminal of a sending neuron, crosses a synapse, and binds to appropriate receptor sites on the dendrites of cell body od a recieving neuron, influencing the cell either to fire or not to fire.
Protein molecules on the surface of dendrites and the cell bodies that will interact only with specific neurontransmitters. (puzzle peices)