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48 Cards in this Set

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Define Psychopatholoy.
The scientific study of the origins, symptoms, and development of psychological disorders.
Define Psychological disorder/ Mental disorder.
A pattern of behavioral and psychological symptoms that causes significant personal distress, impairs the ability to function in one or more important areas of daily life, or both.
Define DSM-IV-TR.
The abbreviation for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; the book was published by the American Psychiatric Association that describes the specific symptoms and diagnostic guidelines for different psychological disorders.
Define Anxiety.
An unpleasant emotional state characterized by physical arousal and feelings of tension, apprehension, and worry.
What are the physical effects of anxiety?
As your personal internal alarm system, anxiety puts you on physical alert which prepares you to fight or flee potential dangers.
What are the mental effects of anxiety?
Anxiety puts you on mental alert which makes you focus your attention on a threatening situation, and you scan the environment for potential threats.
Define Anxiety Disorders.
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme anxiety is the main diagnostic feature and causes significant disruptions in the person’s cognitive, behavioral, or interpersonal functioning.
What are 3 features that distinguish normal anxiety from pathological anxiety?
1)Pathological anxiety is irrational. Anxiety is provoked by perceived threats that are nonexistent or exaggerated (blown out of proportion).
2)Pathological anxiety is uncontrollable. A person can not shut off an alarm reaction even when he/she knows it is unrealistic.
3)Pathological anxiety is disruptive. It interferes with relationships, job or academic performance, or everyday activities.
Define Generalized Anxiety Disorder.
An anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, global, and persistent symptoms of anxiety; also called free-floating anxiety.
Define Panic Attack.
A sudden episode of extreme anxiety that rapidly escalates in intensity.
What are some symptoms of a panic attack.
-Pounding heart
-Rapid breathing
-Breathlessness
-Choking sensation
-Sweat
-Trembling
-Lightheadedness
-Chills
-Hot flashes
Define Panic Disorder.
An anxiety disorder in which the person experiences frequent and unexpected panic attacks.
Define Phobia.
A strong or irrational fear of something usually a specific object or situation that does not necessarily interfere with the ability to function in daily life.
Define Specific Phobia.
An anxiety disorder characterized by an extreme and irrational fear of a specific object of situation that interferes with the ability to function in daily life; formerly called simple phobia.
The objects/situations that produce specific phobias generally fall into four categories: What are they?
1)Fear of particular situations (ex. Flying, driving, tunnels, elevators, crowds, enclosed places)
2)Fear of features other the natural environment (ex. Height, water, thunderstorms, lightening)
3)Fear of injury or blood (fear of injections, needles, medical/dental procedures)
4)Fear of animals and insects (snakes, spiders, dogs, cats)
Define Agoraphobia.
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of experiencing a panic attack in a public situation and being unable to escape or get help.
Define Social Phobia/Social Anxiety Disorder.
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations.
Define Postraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).
An anxiety disorder in which chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma.
Define Obsessive Complusive Disorder.
An anxiety disorder in which the symptoms of anxiety are triggered by intrusive, repetitive thoughts and urges to perform certain actions.
Define Obsessions.
Repeated, intrusive, and uncontrollable irrational thoughts or mental images that cause extreme anxiety and distress.
Define Complusions.
Repetitive behaviors or mental acts that are performed to prevent or reduce anxiety.
What are 2 biological factors that are involved in OCD?
-Deficiency in the neurotransmitter serotonin.
-Dysfunctions in the specific brain areas, such as the frontal lobes (which play a key role in our ability to think and plan ahead) or the caudate nucleus (which is involved in regulating movements).
Define Mood Disorders.
A category of mental disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; also called affective disorders.
Define Major Depression.
A mood disorder characterized by extreme and persistent feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and hopelessness, causing impaired emotional (sadness), cognitive (difficulty thinking), behavioral (rarely smiles), and physical (insomnia) functioning.
Define Dysthymic Disorder.
A mood disorder involving chronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but do not seriously impair the ability to function.
Define Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).
A mood disorder in which episodes of depression typically occur during the fall and winter and subside during the spring and summer.
Define Bipolar Disorder.
A mood disorder involving periods of incapacitating depression alternating with periods of extreme euphoria and excitement; formerly called manic depression.
Define Manic Episode.
A sudden, rapidly escalating emotional state characterized by extreme euphoria, excitement, physical energy, and rapid thoughts and speech.
Define Cyclothymic Disorder.
A mood disorder characterized by moderate but frequent mood swings that are not severe enough to qualify as bipolar disorder.
Define Personality Disorder.
Inflexible, maladaptive patterns of thoughts, emotions, behavior, and interpersonal functioning that are stable over time and across situations, and deviate from the expectations of the individual’s culture.
What are 3 of the best know personlity disorders?
1-Paranoid personality disorder
2-Antisocial personality disorder
3-Borderline personality disorder
Define Paranoid Personality Disorder.
A personality disorder characterized by a pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of the motives of others without sufficient basis.
Define Antisocial Personality Disorder.
A personality disorder that is characterized by a pervasive pattern of disregarding and violating the rights of others; such individuals are also often referred to as psychopaths or sociopaths.
Borderline Personality Disorder.
A personality disorder characterized by instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and emotions, and marked impulsively.
Define Dissociative Experience.
A break or disruption in consciousness during which awareness, memory, and personal identity become separated or divided.
Define Dissociative Disorders.
A category of psychological disorders in which extreme and frequent disruptions of awareness, memory, and personal identity impair the ability to function.
What are the 3 basic dissociative disorders.
1-dissociative amnesia
2-dissociative fugue
3-dissociative identity disorder
Define dissociative amnesia.
A dissociative disorder involving the partial or total inability to recall important personal information.
Define dissociative fugue.
A dissociative disorder involving sudden and unexpected travel away from home, extensive amnesia, and identity confusion.
Define dissociative identity disorder.
A dissociative disorder involving extensive memory disruptions along with the presence of 2 or more distinct identities, or “personalities”; formerly called multiple personality disorder.
Define Schizophrenia and what are the 2 categories of the symptoms?
A psychological disorder in which the ability to function is impaired by severely distorted beliefs, perceptions, and thought processes.
-positive and negative
Define Delusions.
A falsely held belief that persists in spite of compelling contradictory evidence.
Define delusion of reference.
the person is convinced that other people are constantly talking about her of that everything that happens is somehow related to her.
Define delusions of grandeur.
the belief that the person is extremely powerful, important, or wealthy.
Define delusions of persecution.
the basic theme that others are plotting against or trying to harm the person or someone close to her.
Define Hallucination.
A false or distorted perception that seems vividly real to the person experiencing it.
What are the 4 basic types of schizophrenia?
1)Paranoid type- presence of delusions, hallucinations, or both, but no cognitive impairment, disorganized behavior, or negative symptoms.
2)Catatonic type- highly disturbed movements or actions, such as bizarre postures or grimaces, extremely agitated behavior, complete immobility, echoing words spoken by others or imitating their movements.
3)Disorganized type- extremely disorganized behavior, disorganized speech, flat affect, and sometimes disorganized delusions and hallucinations.
4)Undifferentiated type-describes individuals who display some combination of positive and negative symptoms.
Define Dopamine Hypothesis.
The view that schizophrenia is related to, and may be caused by, excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain.