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93 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is Psychology?
The study of the mind and human behavior.
What is the difference between your mind and your behavior?
Behavior is observable, people can see what others are performing. Mind is the basis of mental activity; not observable.
Why is the year 1879 so important?
Was the year psychology was established. Wilhelm Wundt established the first psych. lab/founder of psych.
What are the two major types of psychology?
Social and Experimental
What is Social Psych?
It is effected by culture
What is experimental psych?
How we see, think, learn, etc.
Who was Edward Bradford Titchener?
-Was a student of Wilhelm Wundt
-Believed in Structuralism
What is structuralims?
A method of Introspection
What is Introspection?
Looking Inward
Who was William James?
-First teacher to allow a woman to continue her education in college
-Believed in Functionalism
What is functionalism?
The study of the function of the mind and the use of
Who was John Watson?
-Believed in Behaviorism
-Believed everything was learned
-Stimulus + Response
What is Behaviorism?
The study of observable behavior
Who was Mary Calkins?
A student William James tutored who later became the president of APA.
What is Taste Aversion?
When you eat something that makes you sick or you don't like it and you learn not to eat it again
Who was Garcia?
Put saccharine in water for rats. The rats enjoyed it but it made them sick so they learned not to drink the water anymore
What is Cognitive Psychology?
Studies the process of thinking, evaluation, judgement, and decision making
What is Basic research?
doing research for the sake of knowledge and the truth of behavior
What is applied research?
is aimed toward solving practical problems
What is a Clincial Psych?
studies, assess, and treats troubled people
What is a Psychiatrist?
Medical doctor that can perscribe drugs and treat physical causes of psychological disorders
What is the "Philosophy" of a Psychiatrist?
Psychological problems are like physical problems, something is wrong with the body
What is Hindsight Bias?
Looking back at something and thinking "I could have seen that coming" The tendency to believe after learning an outcome, one would have foreseen.
What are social psychologists?
explore how we view and affect one another.
What is a theory?
A set of logically related statements which try to explain relationships
What are the three research methods?
Descriptive, Correlational, and Experimental
What is the basic purpose of descriptive research?
to observe and record behavior
How is descriptive research conducted?
Do case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations.
Is anything manipulated in descriptive research?
No
What are possible problems of descriptive research?
Biased observations
What is the basic purpose of correlational research?
to detect naturally occuring relationships
How is correlational research conducted?
Compute statistical association, sometimes among survey responses
Is anything manipulated in correlational reserach?
NO
What are possible problems of correlational research?
Does not specify cause and effect
What is the basic purpose of Experimental research?
Explore cause and effect
How is Experimental Research conducted?
Manipulate one or more factors
Is anything manipulated in Experimental Research?
Independent variable(s)
What are possible problems of Experimental Research?
Results may not generalize to other contexts
What is a case study?
An in depth observation of one or very few people
What is the definition of Data?
Gathering information after the research is complete
What is Bystander Effect?
When the number of people witnessig something increases, the liklihood of the helping decreases
What is a Placebo?
A fake substance sdministered instead of the real thing
What is a Double-blind Procedure?
When both the researcher and participant are blind as to who takes the placebo and who takes the real thing
What is the Experimental Control?
The group that is given the treatment
What is the Condition control?
The group that does not revceive the treatment.
What is deception?
Controls subject bias
What is an Independent Variable?
The variable whose effects are studied
What is a Dependent Variable?
Experimental factor that is measured
What is Subject Bias?
When the rearcher does not tell the participant in an experiment what the objective is in fear of them ruining it.
What is Biological Psychology?
concerned with the links between biology and behavior
What type of psychology is Biological psychology?
Basic
What is Phrenology?
Franz Gall believed that bumps on our skulls revealed our mental abilities and character traits
Was Phrenology considered a correct theory?
No because bumps cannot tell us anything about the brains underlying functions
What is Phrenology?
Franz Gall believed that the bumps on our skulls revealed our mental abilities and characteristic traits
What the Phrenology theory correct?
No because bumps tell us nothing about the brains underlying functions
What is a Neuron?
Nerve Cells that are the basci building block to the nervous system
What is the cell body?
The cell's life-support center
What are Dendrites?
Bushy fibers that receive messages from other cell's
What is the axon?
carries information to other neurons, muscles, and glands
What is the Myelin Sheath?
a layer of fatty tissue that insulates the axon of some neurons and helps their impulse speed.
What do terminal branches do?
Form juncitons with other cells
What is the Action Impulse?
electrical signals carried down the axon
What is the Synapse?
The junction between the tip of the axons sending neuron and the dendrites receiveing neuron.
What are neurotransmitter?
Chemical messengers that travesre the synapse gaps between neurons
What is Acetylcholine?
Enables muscle action, learning, and memory
What is an example of a malfunction with Acetylcholine?
too little could lead too alzheimers
What is Dopamine?
Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
What are examples of malfunctions with Dopamine?
too much could lead to schizophrenia and too little could lead to parkinsons
What is Serotonin?
affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
What is an example of a malfunction with Serotonin
Too little can lead to depression
What is Nor-epinephrine?
Controls alterness, and arousal
What is a malfunction of Nor-epinephrine?
too little could lead to a derpressive mood
What does the Medulla do in the brain?
Base of the brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat
What does the Reticular Formation do in the brain?
Controls arousal
What is the Thalamus in the brain?
aka. "Sensory Relay" all of our sensations, except for smelling goes through this part of the brain before any other part.
What is the Brainstem?
the oldest and central core part; responsible for our automatic survival functions.
What is the Cerebellum in the brain?
helps coordinate voluntary movement and balance
What is the Hypothalamus in the brain?
Controls our hunger, thirst, sex drive, body temperature, and growth.
What is one thing about the Hypothalamus that others should know?
It is so sensitive that even the slightest touch could cause severe damage.
What is the Pituitary Gland in the brain?
Secretes hormones that regulate our sex drive.
What is the Limbic System in the brain?
associated with emotions such as fear and aggresstion and drives such as food and sex
What does the Limbic System include?
Hypthalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala.
what is the amygdala in the brain?
in the limbic system; linked to emotions
What is the Hippocampus in the brain?
in the limbic system; linked to memory.
What is the Corpus Collasum in the brain?
axon fibers that connect 2 cerebral hemispheres; does not regulate any behavior
What is the Occipital lobe?
Where we see things
What is the Frontal Lobe?
involved with speaking, muscle movement, planning and judgment.
What is the temporal lobe?
involved with hearing.
What is the parietal lobe?
sensory cortex
What is the sensory cortex?
registers and proccesses body sensations; left hemisphere
What is the motor cortex?
the left hemisphere that controls the body's right side
What is Broca's area?
controls speech muscles
What is Wernickes area?
interprets auditory code.