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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Psychology Defined
- discipline or field of study
- concerned with behavior and mental processes
- effects of physical state, mental state, and external environment
Psychology is Science
- based on research and empirical evidence
- makes specific predictions
- not just common sense
History of Psychology
- roots in philosophy
- sought to describe, predict, understand, and modify behavior
- based on individual observations
- Hippocrates

- phrenology
- Joseph Gall
- bumps on the head directly linked to specific areas of the brain that accounted for personality traits
- illusory correlation
Wilhelm Wundt
- founder of psychology
- established first psychological laboratory in Leipzig, Germany
- promoted trained introspection
- William James
- inspired by Charles Darwin
- how do behaviors help a person or animal adapt to the environment
- Sigmund Freud
- unconscious motives and conflicts
- beginnings of clinical psychology
Ivan Pavlov: classical condition - reactions to environment
- John B. Watson: conditioned fear - behavior shaped by punishment
- Edward Thorndike/B.F. Skinner: operant conditioning, radical behaviorism - used Watson’s ideas, positive
biological perspective
focuses on how bodily events affect behavior, feelings, and thoughts; neurons, hormones, brain chemistry; evolutionary psychology
learning perspective
focuses on how the environment and experience affect behavior; behaviorism, social cognitive learning theories
cognitive perspective
focuses on mental processes; reasoning, memory, language; one important contribution is evidence that thoughts and interpretations of events affect feelings and responses
sociocultural perspective
(focuses on social and cultural forces outside the individual; social psychology = rules, roles, groups, and relationships; cultural psychology = norms, values, and expectations
psychodynamic perspective
focuses on unconscious dynamics within the individual; unconscious thoughts, dreams, conflicts
types of research
- biological: explore the links between the brain, body, and behavior
- developmental: study changes from birth to death
- cognitive: study perception, thinking, language, memory, etc.
- personality: investigate our persistent traits
- social: explore how we view and interact with others
applied psychology uses
- clinical: study, assess, and treat people with psychological disorders
- counseling: help people cope with academic, vocational, and marital challenges
- educational: study and help people in educational settings
- industrial/organizational: study and advise on behavior in the workplace
Descriptive Methods
- yield descriptions of behavior but not necessarily casual explanations
- includes case studies, observational studies, psychological test, surveys
(notes on blackboard)
correlational study
descriptive study that looks for a consistent relationship between two phenomena
measure of how strongly two variables are related to each other
characteristics of behavior or experience that can be measured or described by a numeric scale
coefficient of correlation
measure of correlation that ranges from +1.00 to -1.00
positive correlation
high variables of one variable are associated with high values of another, low with low (height and weight)
negative correlation
high values of one variable are associated with low values of the other (grades and absences)
Inferential Statistics
- these do not merely describe or summarize the data
- permit a researcher to draw inferences (conclusions based on evidence)
Significance Tests
- tell researchers how likely a result was to have occurred by chance
- general results are significant at the .05 level
- the result would be expected to occur by chance 5 times or fewer in 100 repetitions
- if the significance level obtained in a study is higher than .05, then the result is said to be non-significant
distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual
- a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling
psychodynamic theories
- theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious dynamics within the individual
- began with Freud’s theories of personality development and structure
freud stage 1
Oral stage
Birth - 18 months
Pleasure focused on mouth (sucking, biting, chewing)
LINK TO ADULT PERSONALITY: fixation at this stage can lead to smoking, overeating, nail biting, chewing, or dependence or clinginess
freud stage 2
Anal stage
18-36 months
Pleasure focused on bowel and bladder retention and elimination
Toilet training associated with control issues
LINK TO ADULT PERSONALITY: anal retention - neat, orderly, obsessive; anal expulsive - messy, disorganized
freud stage 3
Phallic Stage
3-6 years
Oedipus complex: desire to kill father and possess mother
For boys: fear that father will discover boy’s sexual feelings for his mother and retaliate by castration
For girls: penis envy
LINK TO ADULT PERSONALITY: gender identity formation, components of adult personality in place
freud stage 4
Latency stage
6 years to puberty
no intense sexual conflicts
freud stage 5
Genital stage
Puberty on
Adult sexuality
Gordon Allport
- recognized that not all traits have equal weight and significance in people’s lives
- central traits: characteristic ways of behaving, dealing with others, and reacting to new situations
- secondary traits: more changeable aspects of personality, such as preferences, habits, casual opinions,, etc
Raymond B. Cattell
- factor analysis: statistical method for analyzing the Interco relations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability
- found support for the existence of a cluster of central personality traits
The Big Five (OCEAN)
- Openness to Experience vs. Resistance
- curious or not, imaginative or unimaginative, comfortable or uncomfortable with novelty
- Conscientiousness vs. Impulsiveness
- responsible or undependable, persevering or quick to give up, steadfast or fickle, tidy or careless, self-disciplined or impulsive
- Extroversion vs. Introversion
- outgoing or shy, talkative or silent, sociable or reclusive, adventurous or cautious
- Agreeableness vs. Antagonism
- good-natured or irritable, cooperative or abrasive, secure or suspicious/jealous
- Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability
- continuum of negative emotionality; includes anxiety, guilt, anger, resentment
Prenatal Development stages
- germinal stage: begins at fertilization
- embryonic stage: two weeks after fertilization until the eighth week after conception
- fetal stage: after eight weeks
- important events in neural development occur throughout gestation
Contact comfort
(Margaret and Harry Harlow)
- in primates, the innate pleasure derived from close physical contact; basis of the infant’s first attachment
Mary Ainsworth tested attachment using strange situation - a parent-infant “separation and reunion” procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test the security of a child’s attachment
secure attachment
a parent-infant relationship in which the baby is secure when the parent is present, distressed by separation, and delighted by reunion
insecure attachment
a parent-infant relationship in which the baby clings to the parent, cries at separation, and reacts with anger or apathy to reunion
what causes insecure attachment?
- abandonment and deprivation in the first two years of life
- parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic
- child’s genetically influenced temperament
- stressful circumstances in the family
language development theory by skinner
behavioral approach
- experience and social learning is critical for language
language development theory by noam Chomsky
innate perspective
- language acquisition device
- an innate mental module that allows young children to develop language if they are exposed to an adequate sample of conversation
lawerence kohlberg in moral development
understanding of right and wrong develops along w/ other cognitive abilities
-proposed 3 dilemmas
kohlberg's levels - preconventional level
Preconventional Level
- moral reasoning focuses on the personal consequences of a person’s behavior
- example: Heinz shouldn’t steal b/c he might go to jail
kohlberg's levels - conventional level
Conventoinal Level
- moral judgement based on conformity and loyalty to others and on an understanding of the rule of law
- example: Heinz shouldn’t b/c it is against the law
kohlberg's levels - post conventional level
Post conventional Level
-moral judgment based on universal truths/abstract ideals
- Kohlberg believed that few ppl achieved this level
- example: shouldn’t bc social order would break down
modern emphasis on moral development
tame desires + control emotions
power assertion
- method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment/authority to correct the child’s misbehavior
- threats, physical abuse, etc
- cuases aggressiveness, reduced empthy, poorer moral reasoning
- results particularly bad for verbal abuse
- power assertion does not have the same effect on all children in all environments/cultures
- emotional context of punishment can affect outcomes
- cultural expectations also associated w/ different outcomes
- a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting misbehavior
- explain why unacceptable
- appeal to child’s helpful inclinations
diana baumrind
- permissive: not demanding but highly responsive
- authoritative: demanding but responsive
- authoritarian: demanding and unresponsive
- uninvolved: not demanding/responsive