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48 Cards in this Set

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Developmental Psych
study of lifelong, often age related, processes of change issues
Key issues in dp
nature vs nurture
stability or change
activity and passivity
continuity or discontinuity
culture
Development from conception to birth
Zygote
Embryo
Fetus
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
leading cause and most preventable cause of mental retardation
effects physical appearance
lower IQ
behavioral problems
impulsive
inability to concentrate
Infant's reflexes
Grasping
Sucking
Moro- startle
Babinsky- toes fan
Rooting-turn head to touch
Fantz's Viewing Box
infants prefer more complex stimuli
look at it longer
images shown- patterns etc
Visual Cliff
depth perception at 9 months
two levels
Piaget and thought development
emphasized biology
HOW people thing, not WHAT
apply to any culture
cognitive thought at 2 years
developmet follows the same path in all social environments
Piaget central concepts
Schema- set of organized ways of interacting with the environment and experiencing the world
generalization a child makes based on a comparable occurences of various usually physical actions
Schema Development through 3 processes
adaptation
assimilation- add
accomodation- adjust
Stages of cognitive development
1 sensorimotor 0-2
object permanence, lingo, motor coordination, memory
2. preoperational 2-6
egocentric->decentration
3. concrete operational 6-12
rules, constancies, conservation
4. Formal operational 12+
hypothically, logic, abstract thought
Criticisms of Piaget
1.Underestimated children’s abilities
2.Miscalculated ages of transitions
3.Paid too little attention to the social world
4. continual development
Vygotsky's Developmental theory
development concerned with interaction
social interaction crucial- helps kid develop
parents/adults most imp
scaffolding
zone of proximal development
self talk
Attackment
bond/connection w/ significant others
parents, family, friends
v strong. comfort soothing pleasure
1st step of socialization- affect behavior etc
Harlow
rhesus monkeys
wire cages- terry cloth- more likely to survive
surrogate wire mother= one with terry cloth preferred even w/o bottle
still prefer nurturing, love=social=seek over food
all monkeys in studies= more fearful, aggressive, no social skills
ATTACHMENT=CRUCIAL TO NORMAL DEVELOPMENT
Temperament
disposition
long lasting
biological components
can change=life events
Morality
value system, right and wrong
framework from judgements
family, friends, religion
kohlberg
justice critical
kohlberg's stages
1. preconventional
punishment/reward
2. conventional
good child conformity
3. post conventional
personally create morals, form own judgements, not all reach it
kohlberg criticsms
only looked at white males of dif ages
gilligan
gender differences
boys=justice
girls=caring
differences from mother
gilligan criticisms
doesn't show research
stereotype reinforcement
discounts father
just whites
learning
over behavior
result of experience
exhibited in behavior
relatively permanent
conditioning
systematic procedure through which associations and responses to specific stimuli are learned
simplest learning
bowlby
1-2 yr olds
infants with parents
separated
reunited
Stages of attachment
1. secure
2. resistant
3. avoidant
4. disoriented
Baby Albert
phobias develop
white rat
taste aversion
only one time
garcia affect
after hours
learn not to eat that food
operant conditioning
positive or negative
voluntary
reward or punishment
reinforcement
increases probability of response/behavior
positive reinforcement- give something
negative -something unpleasant removed-aspiring
punishment
to decrease behavior
positive- give something unpleasant- spanking
negative- take away something pleasant- take away video games
limitations of punishments
stops behavior- doesn't put new adaptive behavior in place
agression, confusion, social consequences
punishment=punisher
learned helplessness
social learning theory
organisms learn new responses by observing the behavior of a model and then imitating it
bobo doll
kids watch 4 films
copy it aggressively
most violent- animated
processes important to social learning
1. attention- pay attention to model
2. representation- represent in memory=learning
3. behavioral reproduction- converting cognitive representation of learned behavior to action
4. motivation- encouragement to exhibit learning
binet
students that need special help in paris school system
mental age
model for future tests
iq
intelligence
overall capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with the environment
adapt
deal with environment/problem solve
wechsler
most popular indiv assessment of iq
separates:
verbal-
performance skills- ability to assemple blocks in a manner like jigsaw, find missing pieces, arrange pics in seq.
=more valid measure of int
Factor theories of int
Use statistical technique of factor analysis
Spearman’s two-factor theory of intelligence
General (g)
Affects all tasks
Specific
Affects particular tasks
Emotional int
The ability to perceive and express emotions in accurate and adaptive ways
Allows one to get along well in a variety of situations
types of tests
Achievement Tests
Measure knowledge of specific content
Aptitude Tests
Measure the ability learn certain types of material
emotional aspects
1. Perceiving emotions
2. Using emotion to facilitate thought
3. Understanding emotional information and its impact
4. Managing emotions
issues when developing tests
validity
standardization
establishes norms
reliability
consistency over time
criticisms of int test
int doesn't have precise definition
tests reflect education quality, not int
testing environment may adversely affect
stereotype threat
halo effect
bio factors of int
genetic contribution
cultural bias
tests still reflect values of dominant culture
level of education + parent level
family environment, birth order
gender + int
giftedness
3 factors
1. above average ability
2. committed
3. creativity
int disability
mental impairments + problems with learning/reasoning
low iq scores
limited adaptive skills
diagnosed before 18
support needed
causes: deprived environment, infectuous disease, physical trauma, genetic difficulties/abnormalities/ fetal alcohol syndrome
IDEA
Individuals with Disabilities Act
guarantees free, appropriate public education to children with disabilities in US
int and phys dis
individualized education programs (ieps) often developed
emphasize mainstreaming/inclusion