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95 Cards in this Set

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What is the myelin sheath? What is its function? What disease is caused by destruction of myelin?
layer of protective insulation that covers the axons of certain neurons and helps speed transmission of nerve impulses
What are the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system? What are the functions of each?
Central Nervous System-Consists of brain and spinal cord
-Transmits information between brain and PNS

Peripheral Nervous System-all other components of the nervous system
--Somatic: Links communication between CNS and sense organs, muscles
--Autonomic: carries out processes you can't control i.e. digestion, fight or flight
What do afferent (sensory) and efferent (motor) neurons do
**afferent-transmit information from sensory organs, muscles, and inner organs to CNS

**efferent-convey nerve impulses from the CNS to muscles and glands
What do the various neurotransmitters do, and which one is affected by use of cocaine and amphetamines?
Acetylcholine—for muscle contractions, learning and memory
Dopamine—related to muscle activity, also involved in emotional functioning
Glutamate—keeps central nervous system aroused
Serotonin—regulates emotion, satiety, and sleep
Endorphins—body’s natural painkillers; similar chemically to narcotic drugs
What are the structures of the hindbrain and forebrain, and what do they do
Hindbrain—lowest part of brain
***medulla-breathing,heart rate, swallowing
***pons-conducts information; influences wakefulness and sleep
***cerebellum-controls balance and coordination

Forebrain-largest part located at the top and front
*Thalamus—relays information to appropriate brain area
*Basal ganglia—control movement and coordination
*Hypothalamus-regulates hunger, thirst, body temperature; involved in reproduction, emotional states; Directs activity of the endocrine system
*Limbic system—memory and emotional processing
---Amygdala—aggression, rage and fear
---Hippocampus—important role in formation of memories
What functions does the midbrain serve?
Midbrain—reticular formation=basic functions of life
--Neural network that connects to thalamus
--Involved in attention, alertness and arousal
--Filters out irrelevant information
What is the corpus callosum and what function does it serve?
--thick bundle of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres
--primary function is to integrate motor, sensory, and cognitive performances between the two hemispheres
What is lateralization?
Division of functions between left and right hemispheres
How are people affected when the connections between the two cerebral hemispheres are severed?
the two hemispheres cannot share information and therefore the left side has no idea what the right side is doing
What the influences of hormones on behavior?
Testosterone is linked to aggressive behavior
Thyroid hormones—influence metabolism; related to behavior
What are the different types of experimental methods of studying the brain??
*Lesioning-destroy part of animal’s brain and investigate effects of the tissue loss
*Electrical recording—electrodes in neurons/brain tissue reveal changes
*Electrical stimulation—observe results of mild electric current passed through brain
How do psychologists study the influence of genetics on behavior?
familial association studies, twin studies, and adoptee studies
What are sensory receptors? What are some examples? What do they do?
--Detect stimuli from the outside world
--nose detect odor, etc.
What is Weber’s Law?
You must change stimulus by a constant proportion for change to be detected.
What is sensory adaptation, and which sensory modalities are most/least susceptible to it?
--becoming less sensitive to unchanging stimuli
What are the parts of the eye, and what are their functions?
**Cornea—transparent covering on the surface of the eye
**iris-muscle surrounding pupil that adjusts reflexively to permit entry of light
**pupil-Pupil—size of opening is controlled by iris
**Lens—changes shape to adjust to distance of object
**Retina-receives the image created by light striking it; Contains rods and cones
**Bipolar cells—interconnecting cells
**Ganglion cells—each projecting axon is one nerve fiber
**Optic nerve-large bundle of ganglion cells that transmit visual information to the brain
**fovea-part of the retina containing only cones; site for sharpest vision
What are the different functions and sensitivities of the rods and cones?
Rods respond to very low levels of light and these are what we use in dim light
Cones are used for daytime vision and allow us to see in color
What are the different theories of color vision, and how do they differ?
Young-Helmholtz Theory=the red green and blue receptors work together to produce all discernible colors
Hering(Opponent Process Theory)=Three sets of color receptors that work in either-or pairs
What are the different types of deafness, and how are they caused?
Conduction deafness-caused by damage to middle ear(eardrum or ossicles)
Nerve deafness—damage to hair cells or to auditory nerve
What are pheromones and how do they influence behavior in humans and other animals?
--chemicals produced by a living organism that transmit a message to other members of the same species
--There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology
How does taste work? What are the differences between “supertasters” and nonstasters?
Supertasters—have a very dense network of tastebuds
nontasters-unable to taste
What is the vestibular sense and how does it work?
--Vestibular sense monitors body position in space; aids in keeping one’s balance; Informs whether we are moving quickly, slowly
--movement of fluid in the ear's semicircular canals relates body position information
What is selective attention?
limit attention to certain stimuli
What are bottom-up and top-down processing?
Bottom-up processing—suggests that information is received in small units, and built into larger units that carry meaning
Top-down processing—relies on information or previous knowledge to impose structure onto the smaller details that are perceived
What are the major cues for depth perception and what are the Gestalt laws of grouping?
--binocular cues-involve both eyes, such as retinal disparity and convergence
--monocular cues-can be perceived by each eye alone, such as relative size and interposition
What are the different types of visual illusions and what is an example of each?
proximity, similarity, continuity, closure, connectedness
What is meditation and what effects does it have on psychological and physical health?
A process of focused attention that induces a relaxed, contemplative state
What are states of consciousness?
Levels of consciousness ranging from alert wakefulness to unconsciousness during deep sleep
What are the different states of consciousness, and what is an example of each?
focused awareness-all attention on one thing while other info may be filtered out
drifting consciousness-daydreaming
divided consciousness- multi-tasking such as eating while watching tv
How is the sleep-wake cycle regulated
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in hypothalamus regulates sleep
What are Circadian Rhythyms?
The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day
What are the stages of sleep? When does REM sleep generally occur in the sleep cycle?
***Stage 1-Brain waves small and irregular induce a light sleep
***Stage 2-Onset two minutes after Stage 1 sleep; bursts of brain wave activity: sleep spindles
***Stage 3—4-Deep sleep; 50 percent or fewer of brain wave patterns are delta waves
***REM (rapid-eye-movement) sleep-associated with dreaming; follows Stages 3 and 2 after reverting from deep sleep; High level of brain activity, body movement blocked
What is drifting consciousness? Give an example.
daydreaming
What is the activation-synthesis hypothesis?
cerebral cortex tries to integrate experiences generated by random electrical brain impulses by relying on memories to make sense of what's happening
What are the different types of sleep disorders, and what are their main symptoms?
***insomnia-Inability to fall asleep, remain asleep, or return to sleep after being awakened
***narcolepsy-falling asleep suddenly during the day
***Sleep apnea—frequently stopping breathing during sleep
***Nightmare disorder—frequent, disturbing nightmares
***Sleep terror disorder-repeated episodes of intense fear during sleep, causing the person to awake abruptly in a terrified state
What are the differences between drug use, drug abuse, and drug dependence?
--drug abuse-use of a chemical substance that impairs one's ability to function effectively
--drug abuse-Individual compelled to use or unable to resist drug despite harm that it causes
Which neurotransmitters are affected by cocaine, and how (i.e. do they increase or decrease)?
Cocaine and other amphetamines increase the supply of dopamine in the brain.
What are depressants? What are some examples of depressant drugs?
reduce activity of central nervous system
ex. alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and opioids
What are some properties and examples of hallucinogens?
Alter sensory perceptions; may induce relaxation but also paranoia or panic in others
ex. Marijuana, LSD, PCP
What are some recommendations given in the text for dealing with insomnia?
make bedroom for sleep only, adopt a regular sleep schedule
Who was Ivan Pavlov and what was the area of research for which he earned the Nobel Prize?
did many experiments with dogs and digestion
What is classical conditioning? What are the basic principles of classical conditioning?
process of learning by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit an identical or similar response to one that was originally elicited by another stimulus as the result of the pairing or association of the two stimuli
In conditioning, what are extinction and reconditioning?
**extinction-gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response
**reconditioning-process of relearning a conditioned response following extinction
What is higher-order conditioning? Give an example?
process by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response as a result of its being paired with a conditioned stimulus that already elicits the conditioned response
What is the importance of Watson’s research with Little Albert?
It illustrates the principles of classical conditioning
What is stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination and how do they differ? Give an example of each.
stimulus generalization- tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
stimulus discrimination-tendency to differentiate among stimuli so that stimuli that are related to the original conditioned stimulus, but not identical to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response
What is a puzzle box, and which famous researcher used them to study animal learning?
An experimental apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner for studying relationships between reinforcement and behavior.
What is a reinforcer and how is it different than a punisher?
stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeated; different because it helps child understand what he should do not what he should not do
What is the activation-synthesis hypothesis?
cerebral cortex tries to integrate experiences generated by random electrical brain impulses by relying on memories to make sense of what's happening
What are the different types of sleep disorders, and what are their main symptoms?
***insomnia-Inability to fall asleep, remain asleep, or return to sleep after being awakened
***narcolepsy-falling asleep suddenly during the day
***Sleep apnea—frequently stopping breathing during sleep
***Nightmare disorder—frequent, disturbing nightmares
***Sleep terror disorder-repeated episodes of intense fear during sleep, causing the person to awake abruptly in a terrified state
What are the differences between drug use, drug abuse, and drug dependence?
--drug abuse-use of a chemical substance that impairs one's ability to function effectively
--drug abuse-Individual compelled to use or unable to resist drug despite harm that it causes
Which neurotransmitters are affected by cocaine, and how (i.e. do they increase or decrease)?
Cocaine and other amphetamines increase the supply of dopamine in the brain.
What are depressants? What are some examples of depressant drugs?
reduce activity of central nervous system
ex. alcohol, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and opioids
What are some properties and examples of hallucinogens?
Alter sensory perceptions; may induce relaxation but also paranoia or panic in others
ex. Marijuana, LSD, PCP
What are some recommendations given in the text for dealing with insomnia?
make bedroom for sleep only, adopt a regular sleep schedule
Who was Ivan Pavlov and what was the area of research for which he earned the Nobel Prize?
did many experiments with dogs and digestion
What is classical conditioning? What are the basic principles of classical conditioning?
process of learning by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit an identical or similar response to one that was originally elicited by another stimulus as the result of the pairing or association of the two stimuli
In conditioning, what are extinction and reconditioning?
**extinction-gradual weakening and eventual disappearance of a conditioned response
**reconditioning-process of relearning a conditioned response following extinction
What is higher-order conditioning? Give an example?
process by which a previously neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response as a result of its being paired with a conditioned stimulus that already elicits the conditioned response
What is the importance of Watson’s research with Little Albert?
It illustrates the principles of classical conditioning
What is stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination and how do they differ? Give an example of each.
stimulus generalization- tendency for stimuli that are similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit a conditioned response
stimulus discrimination-tendency to differentiate among stimuli so that stimuli that are related to the original conditioned stimulus, but not identical to it, fail to elicit a conditioned response
What is a puzzle box, and which famous researcher used them to study animal learning?
An experimental apparatus developed by B. F. Skinner for studying relationships between reinforcement and behavior.
What is a reinforcer and how is it different than a punisher?
stimulus or event that increases the probability that the response it follows will be repeated; different because it helps child understand what he should do not what he should not do
What are primary and secondary reinforcers? What are some examples of each?
*primary-Reinforcers, such as food or sexual stimulation, that are naturally rewarding because they satisfy basic biological needs or drives
*secondary-Learned reinforcers, such as money, that develop their reinforcing properties because of their association with primary reinforcers
What are the different types of schedules of reinforcement, and how do they work?
--Continuous reinforcement-every desired response is followed by a reinforcer
--Partial reinforcement-only a portion of behavior is rewarded by reinforcers
What are the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, and punishment in terms of their desired effects on behavior?
***positive reinforcement-strengthening of a response through the introduction of a stimulus after the response occurs
***negative reinforcement-strengthening of a response through the removal of a stimulus after the response occurs
***punishment-introduction of an aversive stimulus or the removal of a reinforcing stimulus after a response occurs, which leads to the weakening or suppression of the response
What is cognitive learning? What are the different types of cognitive learning?
Mental processes that cannot be directly observed and are learned without the experience of direct reinforcement; involves thinking, problem solving, mental imaging

types:
**Insight learning-process of mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of a solution occurs
**Latent-Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and that is not displayed until reinforcement is provided
**Observational-Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others
What is observational learning? Give an example.
Learning by watching the behavior of others.
What are the different types of memory encoding?
Acoustically—encoded by sound
Visually—encoded by mental image
Semantically—encoded by meaning
What are the encoding specificity principle, context-dependent memory effects, and state-dependent memory effects? Give an example of each.
---encoding specificity principle-belief that retrieval will be more successful when cues available during recall are similar to those present when the material was first committed to memory
---state-dependent memory effect-tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same psychological or physiological state as when the information was first learned
ex. learn when you're high, remember when you're high
---context-dependent memory effect-tendency for information to be better recalled in the same context in which it was originally learned
ex. learn something underwater, you'll remember it better underwater too
What are the three processes of memory how do retrieval cues help us remember?
**encoding-converting information into a form usable in memory
**storage-retaining information in memory
**retrieval-bringing to mind information stored in memory

Retrieval cues make it easier to access stored memories and to distinguish between unique events and those similar to them.
What is maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal? Give examples.
---maintenance rehearsal-process of extending retention of information held in short-term memory by consciously repeating the information
ex.remembering phone numbers
---elaborative rehearsal-process of transferring information from short-term to long-term memory by consciously focusing on the meaning of the information
What do scientists believe about the reasons we sleep and dream?
Sleep and dreams may help us to find solutions to problems and consolidate memories.
What are the different types of memory?
**sensory memory-storage system that holds memory of sensory impressions for a very short time
**short-term memory-memory subsystem that allows for retention and processing of newly acquired information for a maximum of about thirty seconds
**long-term memory-memory subsystem responsible for long-term storage of information
What are false memories, and how do they relate to recovered memories?
False memories are memories created in the mind many times under the influence of leading or suggestive questioning. It's very difficult to distinguish between false memories and authentic ones.
What are the different theories of forgetting?
**decay theory-posits that memories consist of traces laid down in the brain that gradually deteriorate and fade away over time
**interference theory-belief that forgetting is the result of the interference of memories with each other
**retrieval theory-belief that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories
**motivated forgetting-Freud's notion that some memories are repressed as a defense mechanism
What is the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve, and what shape does it have?
illustrates the decline of memory retention in time; most information lost shortly after learning; It is in an L-shape.
What are retroactive and proactive interference, and how do they differ?
---proactive interference-material learned earlier interferes with retention of newly acquired information
---retroactive interference-newly acquired information interferes with retention of material learned earlier
What roles does the hippocampus play in memory?
Responsible for converting STM into long-term declarative memory but is not involved in procedural memory processes; Temporary storage only of new declarative memories
In cognitive psychology, what is a concept?
Mental categories for classifying events, objects, and ideas on the basis of their common features or properties
What are some of the mental roadblocks to problem solving? Give an example of each term.
---Mental set-relying on strategies that worked well in previous situations but may hinder the ability to find a newer more effective solution
---Functional fixedness-inability to see how familiar objects can be used in new ways
---Irrelevant information—attending to this distracts from truly relevant factors
Who was B.F. Skinner and what kind of research did he conduct?
studied relationships between reinforcement and behavior
ex. rat and food lever
How is a neural impulse generated and what role does polarization play in transmission of neural impulses?
Electrochemical changes generate the electrical signal which is sent down the axon. Polarization causes a shift in charges of the impulse.
What are absolute thresholds, difference thresholds, and sensory adaptation? Give an example of sensory adaptation?
***absolute threshold-smallest amount of a given stimulus a person can sense
***difference threshold-minimal difference in the magnitude of energy needed for people to detect a difference between two stimuli
What are the different theories of hypnosis and what does each one propose?
--Possibly just a trance state.
--Possibly just role-playing
--neodissociation theory-belief that hypnosis represents a state of dissociated (divided) consciousness
What type of conditioning is involved in learning by association?
aversive conditioning-stimuli associated with undesirable behavior are paired with aversive stimuli to create a negative response to these stimuli
What are algorithms and heuristics, what are some examples of each, and how are they different from each other?
**Heuristics-simple, efficient rules, hard-coded by evolutionary processes or learned, which have been proposed to explain how people make decisions, come to judgments, and solve problems
**Algorithms-finite set of well-defined rules for the solution of a problem in a finite number of steps
What are the differences between structuralism and functionalism? Name one major figure from each of these schools of psychology.
--Structuralism-school of psychology that attempts to understand the structure of the mind by breaking it down into its component parts
--functionalism-school of psychology that focuses on the adaptive functions of behavior
What is the representativeness heuristic? Give an example.
representativeness heuristic is a heuristic wherein we assume commonality between objects of similar appearance
What is the difference between divergent and convergent thinking?
--divergent thinking-ability to conceive of new ways of viewing situations and new uses for familiar objects
--convergent thinking-attempt to narrow down a range of alternatives to converge on the one correct answer to a problem
What is the linguistic relativity hypothesis and is it supported by the evidence?
linguistic relativity hypothesis-proposition that the language we use determines how we think and how we perceive the world
How are IQ scores computed?
based on performance on tests of mental abilities, expressed as a ratio between one’s mental age and chronological age or derived from the deviation of one’s scores from the norms for those of one’s age group
What are some of the drawbacks or concerns about intelligence tests?
--Parents and teachers may lose hope for children with low IQ scores
--Low expectations can become self-fulfilling prophecies; Children may give up on themselves and accept label
--Too much emphasis may be placed on IQ scores—other measures of assessment should also be considered
--Tests may be biased against those not in majority culture
--Culture-fair tests have been developed, but not as good predictors of academic performance
What are the major features of Spearman’s, Thurstone’s, Gardner’s, and Sternberg’s models of intelligence?
***Spearman’s “g”—idea that there is a general underlying factor (ability in one area often correlated with ability in other areas)
***Thurstone’s primary mental abilities (7): verbal comprehension, numerical ability, memory, inductive reasoning, perceptual speed, verbal fluency, spatial relations
***Gardner’s model of multiple intelligences (8): linguistic, logical-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist
***Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence-
Intelligence has three aspects: analytic, creative, and practical and the more intelligent individuals integrate these aspects better
What are the differences between the two major types of concepts? Give examples of each.
--logical concepts-clearly defined rules for membership
--natural concepts-poorly defined or fuzzy rules for membership