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67 Cards in this Set

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What is Social Psychology
The study of how other people influence an individual's thoughts, feelings, and actions.
Different because: It focuses and emphasizes external social forces and environment. They work to understand how groups, attitudes, social roles, and norms encourage us to behave cruelly or aggresively as well as lovingly and altruistically.
(explaining others behaviors) an explanation for the cause of behaviors or events.
1. Dispotional attribution- because of there own personal characteristics, motives, and intentions
2. Situational attribution
Mistaken Attributions
-Fundamental Attribution Error: because we tend to make cognitive shortcuts we tend to blame the person rather than the environment.
-Self-Serving Bias: taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures.
learned predispotion to respond cognitively, affectively, and behaviorally to a particular object.
Components of Attitude (ABC's)
1.Cognitive: consists of thoughts and beliefs
2. Affective: or emotional, involves feelings such as frustration.
3. Behavioral: consists of a predisposition to act in certain ways toward an attitude object.
Cognitive Dissonance
A feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a behavior or between two competing attitudes.
Sources of Prejudice
1. As a learned response
2. As a mental shortcut
3. As the result of economic and political competition
4. As a form of displaced aggression.
Actions toward Others: Social Influences
-Conformity: (Asch's study on the lines)Changing behavior because of imagined or real group pressure. going along with others.
-Obedience:going along with a command.
Three factors of Conformity
1. Normative Social Influence: to conform because of group pressure out of need for approval and acceptance by the group.
2. Informational Social Influence: conforming because of a need for information and direction
3. Reference Groups: people we conform to, or go along with, because we like and admire them and want to be like them.
cultural rule for behavior prescribing what is acceptable is a given situation
Milgram's Shock generator
an experiment to show obedience.
Zimbardo's Prison Study
His experiment showed how roles affect behavior. He screened 20 young college men from Stanford Univeristy, each paid 15$ a day. Randomly assigned roles to become a prisoner. While your watchin tv police officers take you outside, and inform you that your being arrested. Your blindfolded and takin to Stanford Prison, your given an ID number in place of your name.
*It shows that the roles we play as members of a group can have a powerful effect on behavior. His study demonstrates deindividuation.
Ingroup Favoritism
viewing members of the ingroup more positively than members of an outgroup
All other people that are not in your ingroup.
Four basic standards of Identifying abnormal behaviors:
1. Statistical Infrequency: (How rare is the behavior) a behavior may be judged abnormal if it occurs infrequently in a given population.
2. Disability or dysfunction: (Is there a loss of normal functioning) people suffering from psychological disorders may be unable to get along with others, hold a job, eat properly, etc.
3. Personal Distress: (Is the person unhappy) focuses on the individual's own judment of his or her level of functioning.
4. Violation of Norms: (Is the behavior culturally abnormal) Bipolar Disorders
You have to use all four of these components when identifying abnormal behaviors. Psychologists seldom label behavior as abnormal unless it meets several of these standards.
1. Statistical Infrequency
2. Disability or Dysfunction
3. Personal Distress
4. Violation of Norms
History of Psychological Disorders
-during the stone age, people thought that abnormal behavior resulted from demonic possession. The recommended therapy was was to bore a hole in the skull to relieve pressure or release evil spirits--a process known as trephining.
-During European Middle Age: a troubled person was sometimes treated with a religious practice known as exorcism--prayer, fasting, noise-making, beating, and drinking terrible tasting brews were all used to make the body so uncomfortable it would be uninhabitable for the Devil. This demonological model continued into the 15th century.
Many people believed abnormal behavior resulted from inhabitation or possesion by supernatural forces, and thought people could willingly choose to consort with the Devil. Asylums were made to protect the society from abnormal behavior.
Demonolagical Model Vs. Medical Model
The medical Model: Perspective that assumes diseases (including mental illness) have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured, treatment from a psychiatrist.
Demonoligical Model: they choose this, treated with a religious practce known as exorcism-prayer, fasting, beating, noise making, and drinking nasty brews would be so uncomfortable and be unihabitable for the Devil.
-Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association used to describe abnormal behaviors; the "IV-TR" indicates it is the text revision (TR) of the fourth major revision (IV). Organized according to five major dimensions, called axes, which serve as guidlines for making decisions about symptoms.
The 5 Axes
Axis I: Clinical Disorders. describes state disorders that reflects the patients current condition, or "state". Depression and anxiety are examples of Axis I disorders.
Axis II: Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation
Axis III: General Medical Condition: physical disorders that may be relevant to understanding or treating a psychological disorder
Axis IV: Psychosocial and Environmental Problems-problems such as interpersonal stressors and negative life events that may effect the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis (Expected outcome) of psyhological disorders.
Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning- the individuals overall level of functioning in social, occupational, and leisure activities.
Anxiety Disorders
problems associated with severe anxiety, such as phobia's, obbessive compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorders.
Mood Disorders
problems associated with severe dissturbance of mood, such as depression, mania, or alternating episodes of the two (bipolar disorder)
Schizophrenia and other Psychotic Disorders
a group of disorders characterized by major disturbances in perception, language, and thought, emotion, and behavior
Dissociative Disorders
in which the normal integration of conciousness, memory, or identity is suddenly and temporarily altered such as amnesia and dissociative intentiy disorder.
Personality Disoders
problems associated to maladaptive personality traits, including antisocial personality disorders or borderline personality disorders
Substance-related Disorders
problems caused by alcohol, cocaine, tobacco, and other drugs.
Somatoform Disorders
Problems realated to unusual preoccupation with physical health or physical symptoms with no physical cause.
Factitious Disorders
Disorders that the individual adopts to satisfy some economic or psychological need.
Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders
problems related to unsatisfactory sexual activity, finding unusual objects or situations arousing, gender identity problems.
Eating Disorders
Problems related to food, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
Sleep Disorders
Serious disturbances of sleep, such as insomnia (too little sleep), sleep terrors, and hypersomnia (too much sleep)
Impulse Control Disorders
problems related to kleptomania (impulsive stealing), pyromania (setting of fires) and pathological gambling.
Adjustment Disorders
problems involving excessive emotional reaction to specific stressors such as divorce, family discord, or economic concerns.
Disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or early adolescence
problems that appear before adulthood, including mental retardation and language development disorders.
Delirium, Dementia, Amnestic, and Other Cognitive Disorders
problems caused by known damage to the brain, including Alzheimers, strokes, and physical trauma to the brain.
Mental Disorders due to a general medical condition:
problems caused by physical deterioration of the brain due to disease, drugs, and so on.
Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention
problems related to physical or sexual abuse, relational problems, occupational problems, and so forth.
The most common type of Disorder is..
Anxiety. Most people think its depression, but its anxiety.
Different types of Anxiety
1. Generalized Anxiety disorder: persistent, uncontrollable, and free floating anxiety. people feel afraid of something, but are unable to articulate the specific fear. Have a hard time controlling their worries.
2. Panic Disorder: sudden and inexplicable panic attacks; symptoms include difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feeling of impending doom.
3. Phobias: intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
4. Obessive-Compulsive Disorder: intrusive, repetitive fearful thoughts (obessions), urges to perform repetitive ritualistic behabiors (compulsions), or both.
What are the two main types of Mood Disorders
1. Major Depressive Disorder: longlasting depressed mood that interferes with the ability to function, feel pleasure, or maintain interest in life.
2. Bipolar Disorder: Repeated episodes of mania(unreasonable elation and hyperactivity) and depression.

*Mood Disorders differ in their severity ( how often they occur, and how much they disrupt normal functioning) and they differ in their duration (how long they last)
group of phsychotic disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior; the individual withdrawals from people and reality, often into a fantasy life of delussions and halucinations.
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
5 areas of Disturbance
1. perception
2. Language
3. Thought
4. Emotion
5. Behavior
Co-occurance of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism. Creates serious problems.
Myths about Therapy
-small office, with a sofa where the patient tells his secrets to a male therapist with a beard.
-In films therapy is usually biomedical with drugs, or talk therapy.
What media does to therapy, and why people go to therapy?
Media gives a negative one-sided portrayal.
Insight Therapy
-Psychoanalysis (Frued)/Psychodynamic
Rational-Emotive Therapy )Ellis
Cognitive-behavior Therapy (Beck)
Client Centered Therapy (Rogers)
Group, family, and marital.
Insight Therapy:
(Unlocking the secrets of the Unconscious)
(Freud): a persons mind is analized. the patient comes to understand the reasons for his or her behavior and realizes that the childhood conditions under which the conflicts developed no longer exists.
5 major methods of psychoanalysis
1. Free Association
2. Dream Analysis
3. Analyzing resistance
4. Analyzing Transference
5. Interpretation
Albert Ellis: cognitive therapy
Rational-Emotive Therapy.
Calls this an ABCD approach.
Activating Event, Belief System, Consequences: emotional and behavioral consequences, the Disputing or challenging of the erroneous belief.
Aaron Beck: cognitive therapy
Cognitive Behavioral Therpay. Like ellis, beck believes that psychological problems result from illogical thinking and from destructive self-talk. Beck takes a much more active approach , rather than encouraging the client to express thoughts and feelings to gain insight like Ellis.
Beck's thoery of several thinking patterns that are associated with depression:
1. Selective Perception
2. Overgeneralization
3. Magnification
4. All or Nothing thinking
Humanistic Therapies: Blocked Personal Growth
One of the best known HUmanistic therapits is Carl Rogers, developed an approach that encourages people to actualize their potential and relate to others in genuine ways. His approach is referred to as Client-Centered Approach: Roger's therapy emphasizes the client's natural tendency to become healthy and productive; techniques include empathy, unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and active listening.
Group, Family, and Marital Therapies: Healing Interpersonal Relationships
:number of people meet together to work toward therapeutic goals
Self-Help Groups: leaderless or nonprofessionally guided groups in which members assist each other with a specific problem, as in AA.
Advantages to Group Therapy and self help
1. Less expensive
2. Group Support
3. Insight and Information
4. Behavior Rehearsal
What is the critiques of Freud's psychoanalysis?
1. Questionable Assumptions: most pyschoanalysits rest on the assumption that repressed memories and unconscious conflict exists.
2. Limited Applicabilty:
3. Lack of scientific credibility
Difference between Psychoanalysis and Humanistic?
-Psychoanalysis: Freud's therapy designed to bring unconscious conlficts, which usually date back to early childhood experiences, into consciousness; also Freud's theoretical school of thought emphasizing unconscious processes.
-Humanistic: Therapy to maximize personal growth through affective reconstructing (emotional readjustment) Helps people with "Simple" relationship or self image problems. Believes human potential includes the freedom to become what one wnats to be as well as the responsibility to make choices.
(Movie on Mary and Gary) Another name for Multiple Personality is..
Disociative identity disorder
What is Gary in the Movie and what about his wife?
Gary is 3 identities: a man, woman, and an infant.
This happens because of severe trauma, his wife has cancer, and his daughter died.
liking with great emotional intensity.
Romantic Love On a continuum
with attraction, falling in love, being in love, and loving all occupying points along it.
Physical closeness, which applies emotional affection.
Securely Attached
Theories of Love: Explanations of why we have love
1. Evolutionary: increase survival, mating humans have a need for attachment
2. Social and Cultural: love is constructed and reshaped by various history
3. Self-Expansion theory: humans grow and seek to expand and unite themselves to see the universe. Self expand, personal growth reasons.
Two types of love
1. Passionate love: consists of intense arousal and absorption with a partner; it is emotion laden. usually occurs early in relationship, and passion evolves into companionate love.
2. Companionate love: consists of a deep and abiding affection for a partner with whom one's life is linked.
Sex vs. Gender
sex: biological characteristics
Gender: psychological social factors, sociocultural meanings given to maleness and femaleness.